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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(9), 20392-20416; doi:10.3390/ijms160920392

Abiotic Stresses: Insight into Gene Regulation and Protein Expression in Photosynthetic Pathways of Plants

1
Rice Research Institute of Iran, Mazandaran Branch, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Amol 46191-91951, Iran
2
National Institute of Crop Science, National Agriculture and Food Research Organization, Tsukuba 305-8518, Japan
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Jianhua Zhu
Received: 25 June 2015 / Revised: 13 August 2015 / Accepted: 21 August 2015 / Published: 28 August 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Proteomic Research)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1533 KB, uploaded 28 August 2015]   |  

Abstract

Global warming and climate change intensified the occurrence and severity of abiotic stresses that seriously affect the growth and development of plants,especially, plant photosynthesis. The direct impact of abiotic stress on the activity of photosynthesis is disruption of all photosynthesis components such as photosystem I and II, electron transport, carbon fixation, ATP generating system and stomatal conductance. The photosynthetic system of plants reacts to the stress differently, according to the plant type, photosynthetic systems (C3 or C4), type of the stress, time and duration of the occurrence and several other factors. The plant responds to the stresses by a coordinate chloroplast and nuclear gene expression. Chloroplast, thylakoid membrane, and nucleus are the main targets of regulated proteins and metabolites associated with photosynthetic pathways. Rapid responses of plant cell metabolism and adaptation to photosynthetic machinery are key factors for survival of plants in a fluctuating environment. This review gives a comprehensive view of photosynthesis-related alterations at the gene and protein levels for plant adaptation or reaction in response to abiotic stress. View Full-Text
Keywords: abiotic stress; photosynthesis; gene regulation; protein expression abiotic stress; photosynthesis; gene regulation; protein expression
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Nouri, M.-Z.; Moumeni, A.; Komatsu, S. Abiotic Stresses: Insight into Gene Regulation and Protein Expression in Photosynthetic Pathways of Plants. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16, 20392-20416.

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