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More Adventures in Photodynamic Therapy
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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(8), 19960-19977; doi:10.3390/ijms160819960

Inhibition of NF-κB in Tumor Cells Exacerbates Immune Cell Activation Following Photodynamic Therapy

1
Department of Experimental Surgery, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, 1105 AZ Amsterdam, The Netherlands
2
Department of Cell Biology and Immunology, Wageningen University, 6709 PG Wageningen, The Netherlands
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Michael R. Hamblin and Ying-Ying Huang
Received: 15 July 2015 / Revised: 13 August 2015 / Accepted: 17 August 2015 / Published: 21 August 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Photodynamic Therapy)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1119 KB, uploaded 21 August 2015]   |  

Abstract

Although photodynamic therapy (PDT) yields very good outcomes in numerous types of superficial solid cancers, some tumors respond suboptimally to PDT. Novel treatment strategies are therefore needed to enhance the efficacy in these therapy-resistant tumors. One of these strategies is to combine PDT with inhibitors of PDT-induced survival pathways. In this respect, the transcription factor nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) has been identified as a potential pharmacological target, albeit inhibition of NF-κB may concurrently dampen the subsequent anti-tumor immune response required for complete tumor eradication and abscopal effects. In contrast to these postulations, this study demonstrated that siRNA knockdown of NF-κB in murine breast carcinoma (EMT-6) cells increased survival signaling in these cells and exacerbated the inflammatory response in murine RAW 264.7 macrophages. These results suggest a pro-death and immunosuppressive role of NF-κB in PDT-treated cells that concurs with a hyperstimulated immune response in innate immune cells. View Full-Text
Keywords: phototherapy; inflammation; anti-tumor immunity; siRNA; interleukin-6; tumor necrosis factor alpha; monocyte chemotactic protein 1 interleukin-10; interleukin-12p70; interferon gamma phototherapy; inflammation; anti-tumor immunity; siRNA; interleukin-6; tumor necrosis factor alpha; monocyte chemotactic protein 1 interleukin-10; interleukin-12p70; interferon gamma
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Broekgaarden, M.; Kos, M.; Jurg, F.A.; van Beek, A.A.; van Gulik, T.M.; Heger, M. Inhibition of NF-κB in Tumor Cells Exacerbates Immune Cell Activation Following Photodynamic Therapy. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16, 19960-19977.

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