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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(8), 19657-19670; doi:10.3390/ijms160819657

The Incremental Induction of Neuroprotective Properties by Multiple Therapeutic Strategies for Primary and Secondary Neural Injury

1,2,3,†
,
3,4,†
,
2,3,5
,
6
,
6
and
1,2,3,5,*
1
Department of Physical Therapy, College of Biomedical Science & Engineering, Inje University, Gimhae 50834, Korea
2
Biohealth Products Research Center (BPRC), Inje University, Gimhae 50834, Korea
3
Ubiquitous Healthcare & Anti-aging Research Center (u-HARC), Inje University, Gimhae 50834, Korea
4
Department of Physical Therapy, College of Life Sciences, Kyungnam University, Changwon 51767, Korea
5
Department of Rehabilitation Science, Graduate School of Inje University, Gimhae 50834, Korea
6
National Primate Research Center (NPRC), Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology (KRIBB), Ochang 28116, Korea
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Xiaofeng Jia
Received: 14 June 2015 / Revised: 7 August 2015 / Accepted: 7 August 2015 / Published: 19 August 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neurological Injuries’ Monitoring, Tracking and Treatment)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1011 KB, uploaded 25 August 2015]   |  

Abstract

Neural diseases including injury by endogenous factors, traumatic brain injury, and degenerative neural injury are eventually due to reactive oxygen species (ROS). Thus ROS generation in neural tissues is a hallmark feature of numerous forms of neural diseases. Neural degeneration and the neural damage process is complex, involving a vast array of tissue structure, transcriptional/translational, electrochemical, metabolic, and functional events within the intact neighbors surrounding injured neural tissues. During aging, multiple changes involving physical, chemical, and biochemical processes occur from the molecular to the morphological levels in neural tissues. Among many recommended therapeutic candidates, melatonin also plays a role in protecting the nervous system from anti-inflammation and efficiently safeguards neuronal cells via antioxidants and other endogenous/exogenous beneficial factors. Therefore, given the wide range of mechanisms responsible for neuronal damage, multi-action drugs or therapies for the treatment of neural injury that make use of two or more agents and target several pathways may have greater efficacy in promoting functional recovery than a single therapy alone. View Full-Text
Keywords: neural damages; risk factors; therapeutic intervention; melatonin; exercise neural damages; risk factors; therapeutic intervention; melatonin; exercise
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Lee, S.; Park, S.; Won, J.; Lee, S.-R.; Chang, K.-T.; Hong, Y. The Incremental Induction of Neuroprotective Properties by Multiple Therapeutic Strategies for Primary and Secondary Neural Injury. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16, 19657-19670.

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