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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(8), 19326-19346; doi:10.3390/ijms160819326

Identification of Proteins Modulated in the Date Palm Stem Infested with Red Palm Weevil (Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Oliv.) Using Two Dimensional Differential Gel Electrophoresis and Mass Spectrometry

1
Department of Plant Protection, College of Food and Agriculture Sciences, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia
2
Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Kobe University, Kobe 657-8501, Japan
3
Department of Plant Production, College of Food and Agriculture Sciences, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia
4
Department of Biotechnology, American University of Ras Al Khaimah, Ras Al Khaimah 10021, United Arab Emirates
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Setsuko Komatsu
Received: 9 April 2015 / Revised: 30 July 2015 / Accepted: 3 August 2015 / Published: 17 August 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Proteomic Research)
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Abstract

A state of the art proteomic methodology using Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization-Time of Flight (MALDI TOF) has been employed to characterize peptides modulated in the date palm stem subsequent to infestation with red palm weevil (RPW). Our analyses revealed 32 differentially expressed peptides associated with RPW infestation in date palm stem. To identify RPW infestation associated peptides (I), artificially wounded plants (W) were used as additional control beside uninfested plants, a conventional control (C). A constant unique pattern of differential expression in infested (I), wounded (W) stem samples compared to control (C) was observed. The upregulated proteins showed relative fold intensity in order of I > W and downregulated spots trend as W > I, a quite interesting pattern. This study also reveals that artificially wounding of date palm stem affects almost the same proteins as infestation; however, relative intensity is quite lower than in infested samples both in up and downregulated spots. All 32 differentially expressed spots were subjected to MALDI-TOF analysis for their identification and we were able to match 21 proteins in the already existing databases. Relatively significant modulated expression pattern of a number of peptides in infested plants predicts the possibility of developing a quick and reliable molecular methodology for detecting plants infested with date palm. View Full-Text
Keywords: date palm; stem; red palm weevil; infestation; differential expression; proteins; two dimensional differential in-gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE); Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization-Time of Flight (MALDI TOF) date palm; stem; red palm weevil; infestation; differential expression; proteins; two dimensional differential in-gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE); Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization-Time of Flight (MALDI TOF)
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Rasool, K.G.; Khan, M.A.; Aldawood, A.S.; Tufail, M.; Mukhtar, M.; Takeda, M. Identification of Proteins Modulated in the Date Palm Stem Infested with Red Palm Weevil (Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Oliv.) Using Two Dimensional Differential Gel Electrophoresis and Mass Spectrometry. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16, 19326-19346.

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