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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(8), 19291-19307; doi:10.3390/ijms160819291

Tangential Flow Ultrafiltration Allows Purification and Concentration of Lauric Acid-/Albumin-Coated Particles for Improved Magnetic Treatment

1
Section of Experimental Oncology and Nanomedicine (SEON), Else Kröner-Fresenius Stiftungsprofessur for Nanomedicine, University Hospital Erlangen, 91054 Erlangen, Germany
2
Institute for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital Jena, 07747 Jena, Germany
3
Chair of Magnetofluiddynamics, Measuring and Automation Technology, Technische Universität Dresden, 01069 Dresden, Germany
4
Division of Pharmaceutics, Friedrich Alexander University Erlangen-Nuremberg, 91058 Erlangen, Germany
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: O. Thompson Mefford
Received: 22 June 2015 / Accepted: 9 August 2015 / Published: 14 August 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnetic Nanoparticles 2015)
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Abstract

Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) are frequently used for drug targeting, hyperthermia and other biomedical purposes. Recently, we have reported the synthesis of lauric acid-/albumin-coated iron oxide nanoparticles SEONLA-BSA, which were synthesized using excess albumin. For optimization of magnetic treatment applications, SPION suspensions need to be purified of excess surfactant and concentrated. Conventional methods for the purification and concentration of such ferrofluids often involve high shear stress and low purification rates for macromolecules, like albumin. In this work, removal of albumin by low shear stress tangential ultrafiltration and its influence on SEONLA-BSA particles was studied. Hydrodynamic size, surface properties and, consequently, colloidal stability of the nanoparticles remained unchanged by filtration or concentration up to four-fold (v/v). Thereby, the saturation magnetization of the suspension can be increased from 446.5 A/m up to 1667.9 A/m. In vitro analysis revealed that cellular uptake of SEONLA-BSA changed only marginally. The specific absorption rate (SAR) was not greatly affected by concentration. In contrast, the maximum temperature Tmax in magnetic hyperthermia is greatly enhanced from 44.4 °C up to 64.9 °C by the concentration of the particles up to 16.9 mg/mL total iron. Taken together, tangential ultrafiltration is feasible for purifying and concentrating complex hybrid coated SPION suspensions without negatively influencing specific particle characteristics. This enhances their potential for magnetic treatment. View Full-Text
Keywords: hyperthermia; nanoparticle concentration; tangential ultrafiltration; nanoparticle purification; specific absorption rate (SAR); superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) hyperthermia; nanoparticle concentration; tangential ultrafiltration; nanoparticle purification; specific absorption rate (SAR); superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs)
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Zaloga, J.; Stapf, M.; Nowak, J.; Pöttler, M.; Friedrich, R.P.; Tietze, R.; Lyer, S.; Lee, G.; Odenbach, S.; Hilger, I.; Alexiou, C. Tangential Flow Ultrafiltration Allows Purification and Concentration of Lauric Acid-/Albumin-Coated Particles for Improved Magnetic Treatment. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16, 19291-19307.

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