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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(8), 17273-17288; doi:10.3390/ijms160817273

Fenarimol, a Pyrimidine-Type Fungicide, Inhibits Brassinosteroid Biosynthesis

1
Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Bioresource Sciences, Akita Prefectural University, 241-438, Shimoshinjo Nakano, Akita 010-0195, Japan
2
National Agricultural Research Center, National Agriculture and Food Research Organization, 3-1-1 Kannondai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8666, Japan
3
Gene Discovery Research Group, RIKEN Center for Sustainable Resource Science, Wako, Saitama 351-0198, Japan
4
CREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Maurizio Battino
Received: 15 June 2015 / Revised: 9 July 2015 / Accepted: 23 July 2015 / Published: 29 July 2015
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Abstract

The plant steroid hormone brassinosteroids (BRs) are important signal mediators that regulate broad aspects of plant growth and development. With the discovery of brassinoazole (Brz), the first specific inhibitor of BR biosynthesis, several triazole-type BR biosynthesis inhibitors have been developed. In this article, we report that fenarimol (FM), a pyrimidine-type fungicide, exhibits potent inhibitory activity against BR biosynthesis. FM induces dwarfism and the open cotyledon phenotype of Arabidopsis seedlings in the dark. The IC50 value for FM to inhibit stem elongation of Arabidopsis seedlings grown in the dark was approximately 1.8 ± 0.2 μM. FM-induced dwarfism of Arabidopsis seedlings could be restored by brassinolide (BL) but not by gibberellin (GA). Assessment of the target site of FM in BR biosynthesis by feeding BR biosynthesis intermediates indicated that FM interferes with the side chain hydroxylation of BR biosynthesis from campestanol to teasterone. Determination of the binding affinity of FM to purified recombinant CYP90D1 indicated that FM induced a typical type II binding spectrum with a Kd value of approximately 0.79 μM. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis of the expression level of the BR responsive gene in Arabidopsis seedlings indicated that FM induces the BR deficiency in Arabidopsis. View Full-Text
Keywords: brassinosteroid biosynthesis inhibitor; fenarimol; plant hormone; plant growth regulation brassinosteroid biosynthesis inhibitor; fenarimol; plant hormone; plant growth regulation
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Oh, K.; Matsumoto, T.; Yamagami, A.; Hoshi, T.; Nakano, T.; Yoshizawa, Y. Fenarimol, a Pyrimidine-Type Fungicide, Inhibits Brassinosteroid Biosynthesis. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16, 17273-17288.

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