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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(6), 13798-13814; doi:10.3390/ijms160613798

Reducing the Oxidation Level of Dextran Aldehyde in a Chitosan/Dextran-Based Surgical Hydrogel Increases Biocompatibility and Decreases Antimicrobial Efficacy

1
Department of Microbiology & Immunology, University of Otago, 9054 Dunedin, New Zealand
2
Department of Chemistry, University of Otago, 9054 Dunedin, New Zealand
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Antonella Piozzi
Received: 6 May 2015 / Accepted: 1 June 2015 / Published: 16 June 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Polymers 2016)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1261 KB, uploaded 16 June 2015]   |  

Abstract

A highly oxidized form of a chitosan/dextran-based hydrogel (CD-100) containing 80% oxidized dextran aldehyde (DA-100) was developed as a post-operative aid, and found to significantly prevent adhesion formation in endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS). However, the CD-100 hydrogel showed moderate in vitro cytotoxicity to mammalian cell lines, with the DA-100 found to be the cytotoxic component. In order to extend the use of the hydrogel to abdominal surgeries, reformulation using a lower oxidized DA (DA-25) was pursued. The aim of the present study was to compare the antimicrobial efficacy, in vitro biocompatibility and wound healing capacity of the highly oxidized CD-100 hydrogel with the CD-25 hydrogel. Antimicrobial studies were performed against a range of clinically relevant abdominal microorganisms using the micro-broth dilution method. Biocompatibility testing using human dermal fibroblasts was assessed via a tetrazolium reduction assay (MTT) and a wound healing model. In contrast to the original DA-100 formulation, DA-25 was found to be non-cytotoxic, and showed no overall impairment of cell migration, with wound closure occurring at 72 h. However, the lower oxidation level negatively affected the antimicrobial efficacy of the hydrogel (CD-25). Although the CD-25 hydrogel’s antimicrobial efficacy and anti-fibroblast activity is decreased when compared to the original CD-100 hydrogel formulation, previous in vivo studies show that the CD-25 hydrogel remains an effective, biocompatible barrier agent in the prevention of postoperative adhesions. View Full-Text
Keywords: hydrogel; biocompatibility; chitosan; oxidized dextran; antimicrobial hydrogel; biocompatibility; chitosan; oxidized dextran; antimicrobial
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Chan, M.; Brooks, H.J.L.; Moratti, S.C.; Hanton, L.R.; Cabral, J.D. Reducing the Oxidation Level of Dextran Aldehyde in a Chitosan/Dextran-Based Surgical Hydrogel Increases Biocompatibility and Decreases Antimicrobial Efficacy. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16, 13798-13814.

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