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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(6), 13339-13355; doi:10.3390/ijms160613339

Phylogeography of Thlaspi arvense (Brassicaceae) in China Inferred from Chloroplast and Nuclear DNA Sequences and Ecological Niche Modeling

1,2
,
3
,
1,4,* and 1,5,*
1
School of Life Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433, China
2
Shanghai Chenshan Plant Science Research Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences/ Shanghai Chenshan Botanical Garden, Shanghai 201602, China
3
Shanghai Public Health Clinical Center, Fudan University, Shanghai 201508, China
4
Key Laboratory for Plant Diversity and Biogeography of East Asia, Kunming Institute of Botany, CAS, Kunming 650201, China
5
Institute of Biodiversity Science and Geobiology, Tibet University, Lhasa 850000, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Jianhua Zhu
Received: 7 January 2015 / Revised: 11 May 2015 / Accepted: 11 May 2015 / Published: 11 June 2015
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular and Cellular Biology)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [2501 KB, uploaded 11 June 2015]   |  

Abstract

Thlaspi arvense is a well-known annual farmland weed with worldwide distribution, which can be found from sea level to above 4000 m high on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP). In this paper, a phylogeographic history of T. arvense including 19 populations from China was inferred by using three chloroplast (cp) DNA segments (trnL-trnF, rpl32-trnL and rps16) and one nuclear (n) DNA segment (Fe-regulated transporter-like protein, ZIP). A total of 11 chloroplast haplotypes and six nuclear alleles were identified, and haplotypes unique to the QTP were recognized (C4, C5, C7 and N4). On the basis of molecular dating, haplotypes C4, C5 and C7 have separated from others around 1.58 Ma for cpDNA, which corresponds to the QTP uplift. In addition, this article suggests that the T. arvense populations in China are a mixture of diverged subpopulations as inferred by hT/vT test (hT ≤ vT, cpDNA) and positive Tajima’s D values (1.87, 0.05 < p < 0.10 for cpDNA and 3.37, p < 0.01 for nDNA). Multimodality mismatch distribution curves and a relatively large shared area of suitable environmental conditions between the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) as well as the present time recognized by MaxEnt software reject the sudden expansion population model. View Full-Text
Keywords: Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau; population structure; admixture; molecular dating; MaxEnt Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau; population structure; admixture; molecular dating; MaxEnt
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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An, M.; Zeng, L.; Zhang, T.; Zhong, Y. Phylogeography of Thlaspi arvense (Brassicaceae) in China Inferred from Chloroplast and Nuclear DNA Sequences and Ecological Niche Modeling. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16, 13339-13355.

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