Virulence Factors of Erwinia amylovora: A Review
AbstractErwinia amylovora, a Gram negative bacteria of the Enterobacteriaceae family, is the causal agent of fire blight, a devastating plant disease affecting a wide range of host species within Rosaceae and a major global threat to commercial apple and pear production. Among the limited number of control options currently available, prophylactic application of antibiotics during the bloom period appears the most effective. Pathogen cells enter plants through the nectarthodes of flowers and other natural openings, such as wounds, and are capable of rapid movement within plants and the establishment of systemic infections. Many virulence determinants of E. amylovora have been characterized, including the Type III secretion system (T3SS), the exopolysaccharide (EPS) amylovoran, biofilm formation, and motility. To successfully establish an infection, E. amylovora uses a complex regulatory network to sense the relevant environmental signals and coordinate the expression of early and late stage virulence factors involving two component signal transduction systems, bis-(3′-5′)-cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) and quorum sensing. The LPS biosynthetic gene cluster is one of the relatively few genetic differences observed between Rubus- and Spiraeoideae-infecting genotypes of E. amylovora. Other differential factors, such as the presence and composition of an integrative conjugative element associated with the Hrp T3SS (hrp genes encoding the T3SS apparatus), have been recently described. In the present review, we present the recent findings on virulence factors research, focusing on their role in bacterial pathogenesis and indicating other virulence factors that deserve future research to characterize them. View Full-Text
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Piqué, N.; Miñana-Galbis, D.; Merino, S.; Tomás, J.M. Virulence Factors of Erwinia amylovora: A Review. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16, 12836-12854.
Piqué N, Miñana-Galbis D, Merino S, Tomás JM. Virulence Factors of Erwinia amylovora: A Review. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2015; 16(6):12836-12854.Chicago/Turabian Style
Piqué, Núria; Miñana-Galbis, David; Merino, Susana; Tomás, Juan M. 2015. "Virulence Factors of Erwinia amylovora: A Review." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 16, no. 6: 12836-12854.