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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(6), 12147-12158; doi:10.3390/ijms160612147

Association between Serum Soluble CD154 Levels and Mortality in Patients with Malignant Middle Cerebral Artery Infarction

1
Intensive Care Unit, Hospital Universitario de Canarias, La Laguna 38320, Spain
2
Intensive Care Unit, Hospital Universitario Nuestra Señora de Candelaria, Santa Cruz de Tenerife 38010, Spain
3
Laboratory Deparment, Hospital Universitario de Canarias, La Laguna 38320, Spain
4
Intensive Care Unit, Hospital General La Palma, Breña Alta 38713, Spain
5
Intensive Care Unit, Hospital Clínico Universitario de Valencia, Valencia 46004, Spain
6
Intensive Care Unit, Hospital Insular, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria 35016, Spain
7
Intensive Care Unit, Hospital Universitario Dr. Negrín, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria 35010, Spain
8
Research Unit, Hospital Universitario de Canarias, La Laguna 38320, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Chris Sobey
Received: 14 March 2015 / Accepted: 14 May 2015 / Published: 28 May 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Immune System and Inflammation in Cerebral Ischemia)
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Abstract

Background: CD154 and its soluble counterpart (sCD154) are proteins of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) family and exhibit proinflamatory and procoagulant properties. Higher circulating sCD154 levels have been found in ischemic stroke patients than in controls. However, the association between circulating sCD154 levels and mortality in ischemic stroke patients has not been reported, and was the focus of this study. Methods: This was a multicenter, observational and prospective study carried out in six Spanish Intensive Care Units. We measured serum sCD154 from 50 patients with severe malignant middle cerebral artery infarction (MMCAI), defined as Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) lower than 9, at the moment of the severe MMCAI diagnosis and from 50 healthy controls. The end-point of the study was 30-day mortality. Results: We found higher serum sCD154 levels in patients with severe MMCAI than in healthy controls (p < 0.001). We found higher serum sCD154 levels (p < 0.001) in non-surviving (n = 26) than in surviving MMCAI patients (n = 24). Multiple binomial logistic regression analysis showed that serum sCD154 levels >1.41 ng/mmL were associated with 30-day mortality (OR = 10.25; 95% CI = 2.34–44.95; p = 0.002). Conclusions: The new more important finding of our study was that serum sCD154 levels in MMCAI patients were associated with mortality. View Full-Text
Keywords: sCD154; cerebral infarction; patients; mortality sCD154; cerebral infarction; patients; mortality
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MDPI and ACS Style

Lorente, L.; Martín, M.M.; González-Rivero, A.F.; Ramos, L.; Argueso, M.; Cáceres, J.J.; Solé-Violán, J.; Jiménez, A.; Borreguero-León, J.M. Association between Serum Soluble CD154 Levels and Mortality in Patients with Malignant Middle Cerebral Artery Infarction. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16, 12147-12158.

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