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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(5), 10457-10469; doi:10.3390/ijms160510457

4,4'-Diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic Acid (DIDS) Ameliorates Ischemia-Hypoxia-Induced White Matter Damage in Neonatal Rats through Inhibition of the Voltage-Gated Chloride Channel ClC-2

1
Battalion 4 of Cadet Brigade, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038, China
2
Battalion 19 of Bioengineering, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038, China
3
Battalion 7 of Cadet Brigade, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038, China
4
Department of Histology and Embryology, Third Military Medical University, 30# Gaotanyan St, Shapingba District, Chongqing 400038, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Bing Yan
Received: 28 March 2015 / Revised: 29 April 2015 / Accepted: 30 April 2015 / Published: 7 May 2015
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular and Cellular Biology)
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Abstract

Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion is believed to cause white matter lesions (WMLs), leading to cognitive impairment. Previous studies have shown that inflammation and apoptosis of oligodendrocytes (OLs) are involved in the pathogenesis of WMLs, but effective treatments have not been studied. In this study, 4,4'-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid (DIDS), a chloride (Cl) channel blocker, was injected into chronic cerebral ischemia-hypoxia rat models at different time points. Our results showed that DIDS significantly reduced the elevated mRNA levels and protein expression of chloride channel 2 (ClC-2) in neonatal rats induced by ischemia-hypoxia. Meanwhile, DIDS application significantly decreased the concentrations of reactive oxygen species (ROS); and the mRNA levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha TNF-α in neonatal rats with hypoxic-ischemic damage. Myelin staining was weaker in neonatal rats with hypoxic-ischemic damage compared to normal controls in corpus callosum and other white matter, which was ameliorated by DIDS. Furthermore, the elevated number of caspase-3 and neural/glial antigen 2 (NG-2) double-labeled positive cells was attenuated by DIDS after ischemia anoxic injury. Administration of DIDS soon after injury alleviated damage to OLs much more effectively in white matter. In conclusion, our study suggests that early application of DIDS after ischemia-hypoxia injury may partially protect developing OLs. View Full-Text
Keywords: DIDS; ischemia-hypoxia; Cl channel; oligodendrocyte; blocker; apoptosis DIDS; ischemia-hypoxia; Cl channel; oligodendrocyte; blocker; apoptosis
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Zhao, B.; Quan, H.; Ma, T.; Tian, Y.; Cai, Q.; Li, H. 4,4'-Diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic Acid (DIDS) Ameliorates Ischemia-Hypoxia-Induced White Matter Damage in Neonatal Rats through Inhibition of the Voltage-Gated Chloride Channel ClC-2. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16, 10457-10469.

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