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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(5), 10228-10241; doi:10.3390/ijms160510228

Cell Death Pathways and Phthalocyanine as an Efficient Agent for Photodynamic Cancer Therapy

Laser Research Centre, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Johannesburg, P.O. Box 17011, Doornfontein 2028, South Africa
These authors contributed equally to this work.
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Michael R. Hamblin
Received: 13 February 2015 / Revised: 14 April 2015 / Accepted: 28 April 2015 / Published: 6 May 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Photodynamic Therapy)
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Abstract

The mechanisms of cell death can be predetermined (programmed) or not and categorized into apoptotic, autophagic and necrotic pathways. The process of Hayflick limits completes the execution of death-related mechanisms. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are associated with oxidative stress and subsequent cytodamage by oxidizing and degrading cell components. ROS are also involved in immune responses, where they stabilize and activate both hypoxia-inducible factors and phagocytic effectors. ROS production and presence enhance cytodamage and photodynamic-induced cell death. Photodynamic cancer therapy (PDT) uses non-toxic chemotherapeutic agents, photosensitizer (PS), to initiate a light-dependent and ROS-related cell death. Phthalocyanines (PCs) are third generation and stable PSs with improved photochemical abilities. They are effective inducers of cell death in various neoplastic models. The metallated PCs localize in critical cellular organelles and are better inducers of cell death than other previous generation PSs as they favor mainly apoptotic cell death events. View Full-Text
Keywords: death mechanisms; photodynamic cancer therapy; reactive oxygen species; photosensitizer; phthalocyanine death mechanisms; photodynamic cancer therapy; reactive oxygen species; photosensitizer; phthalocyanine
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Mfouo-Tynga, I.; Abrahamse, H. Cell Death Pathways and Phthalocyanine as an Efficient Agent for Photodynamic Cancer Therapy. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16, 10228-10241.

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