Cell Death Pathways and Phthalocyanine as an Efficient Agent for Photodynamic Cancer Therapy
AbstractThe mechanisms of cell death can be predetermined (programmed) or not and categorized into apoptotic, autophagic and necrotic pathways. The process of Hayflick limits completes the execution of death-related mechanisms. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are associated with oxidative stress and subsequent cytodamage by oxidizing and degrading cell components. ROS are also involved in immune responses, where they stabilize and activate both hypoxia-inducible factors and phagocytic effectors. ROS production and presence enhance cytodamage and photodynamic-induced cell death. Photodynamic cancer therapy (PDT) uses non-toxic chemotherapeutic agents, photosensitizer (PS), to initiate a light-dependent and ROS-related cell death. Phthalocyanines (PCs) are third generation and stable PSs with improved photochemical abilities. They are effective inducers of cell death in various neoplastic models. The metallated PCs localize in critical cellular organelles and are better inducers of cell death than other previous generation PSs as they favor mainly apoptotic cell death events. View Full-Text
Share & Cite This Article
Mfouo-Tynga, I.; Abrahamse, H. Cell Death Pathways and Phthalocyanine as an Efficient Agent for Photodynamic Cancer Therapy. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16, 10228-10241.
Mfouo-Tynga I, Abrahamse H. Cell Death Pathways and Phthalocyanine as an Efficient Agent for Photodynamic Cancer Therapy. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2015; 16(5):10228-10241.Chicago/Turabian Style
Mfouo-Tynga, Ivan; Abrahamse, Heidi. 2015. "Cell Death Pathways and Phthalocyanine as an Efficient Agent for Photodynamic Cancer Therapy." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 16, no. 5: 10228-10241.