Next Article in Journal
The Heart Protection Effect of Alcalase Potato Protein Hydrolysate Is through IGF1R-PI3K-Akt Compensatory Reactivation in Aging Rats on High Fat Diets
Previous Article in Journal
Ultrasound Tissue Characterization of Vulnerable Atherosclerotic Plaque
Article Menu
Issue 5 (May) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(5), 10134-10157; doi:10.3390/ijms160510134

Evolutionary Analysis of the B56 Gene Family of PP2A Regulatory Subunits

Department of Biological Sciences, Sam Houston State University, Huntsville, TX 77341, USA
Department of Computer Science, Sam Houston State University, Huntsville, TX 77341, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Ritva Tikkanen
Received: 12 March 2015 / Revised: 22 April 2015 / Accepted: 24 April 2015 / Published: 5 May 2015
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular and Cellular Biology)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1375 KB, uploaded 5 May 2015]   |  


Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is an abundant serine/threonine phosphatase that functions as a tumor suppressor in numerous cell-cell signaling pathways, including Wnt, myc, and ras. The B56 subunit of PP2A regulates its activity, and is encoded by five genes in humans. B56 proteins share a central core domain, but have divergent amino- and carboxy-termini, which are thought to provide isoform specificity. We performed phylogenetic analyses to better understand the evolution of the B56 gene family. We found that B56 was present as a single gene in eukaryotes prior to the divergence of animals, fungi, protists, and plants, and that B56 gene duplication prior to the divergence of protostomes and deuterostomes led to the origin of two B56 subfamilies, B56αβε and B56γδ. Further duplications led to three B56αβε genes and two B56γδ in vertebrates. Several nonvertebrate B56 gene names are based on distinct vertebrate isoform names, and would best be renamed. B56 subfamily genes lack significant divergence within primitive chordates, but each became distinct in complex vertebrates. Two vertebrate lineages have undergone B56 gene loss, Xenopus and Aves. In Xenopus, B56δ function may be compensated for by an alternatively spliced transcript, B56δ/γ, encoding a B56δ-like amino-terminal region and a B56γ core. View Full-Text
Keywords: protein phosphatase 2A; B56 regulatory subunit; molecular phylogeny protein phosphatase 2A; B56 regulatory subunit; molecular phylogeny

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Sommer, L.M.; Cho, H.; Choudhary, M.; Seeling, J.M. Evolutionary Analysis of the B56 Gene Family of PP2A Regulatory Subunits. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16, 10134-10157.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top