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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(4), 8699-8718; doi:10.3390/ijms16048699

Modulation of the Genome and Epigenome of Individuals Susceptible to Autism by Environmental Risk Factors

Department of Cytogenetics and Genomics, the Cyprus Institute of Neurology and Genetics, P.O. Box 3462, Nicosia 1683, Cyprus
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Merlin G. Butler
Received: 27 November 2014 / Revised: 3 April 2015 / Accepted: 8 April 2015 / Published: 20 April 2015
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Abstract

Diverse environmental factors have been implicated with the development of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Genetic factors also underlie the differential vulnerability to environmental risk factors of susceptible individuals. Currently the way in which environmental risk factors interact with genetic factors to increase the incidence of ASD is not well understood. A greater understanding of the metabolic, cellular, and biochemical events involved in gene x environment interactions in ASD would have important implications for the prevention and possible treatment of the disorder. In this review we discuss various established and more alternative processes through which environmental factors implicated in ASD can modulate the genome and epigenome of genetically-susceptible individuals. View Full-Text
Keywords: xenobiotic; immune; endocrine; epigenome; gut microbes; oxidative stress; transposable elements; endocrine disruptors; transgenerational; gene environment interactions; seizures; genotype xenobiotic; immune; endocrine; epigenome; gut microbes; oxidative stress; transposable elements; endocrine disruptors; transgenerational; gene environment interactions; seizures; genotype
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Koufaris, C.; Sismani, C. Modulation of the Genome and Epigenome of Individuals Susceptible to Autism by Environmental Risk Factors. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16, 8699-8718.

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