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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(4), 8397-8414; doi:10.3390/ijms16048397

Transcriptional Responses of Glutathione Transferase Genes in Ruditapes philippinarum Exposed to Microcystin-LR

1
CIIMAR/CIMAR—Interdisciplinary Centre of Marine and Environmental Research, University of Porto, Rua dos Bragas 289, 4050-123 Porto, Portugal
2
Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, University of Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 4069-007 Porto, Portugal
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Helmut Segner
Received: 3 February 2015 / Revised: 20 March 2015 / Accepted: 3 April 2015 / Published: 15 April 2015
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Toxicology)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [911 KB, uploaded 15 April 2015]   |  

Abstract

Glutathione Transferases (GSTs) are phase II detoxification enzymes known to be involved in the molecular response against microcystins (MCs) induced toxicity. However, the individual role of the several GST isoforms in the MC detoxification process is still unknown. In this study, the time-dependent changes on gene expression of several GST isoforms (pi, mu, sigma 1, sigma 2) in parallel with enzymatic activity of total GST were investigated in gills and hepatopancreas of the bivalve Ruditapes philippinarum exposed to pure MC-LR (10 and 100 µg/L). No significant changes in GST enzyme activities were found on both organs. In contrast, MC-LR affected the transcriptional activities of these detoxification enzymes both in gills and hepatopancreas. GST transcriptional changes in gills promoted by MC-LR were characterized by an early (12 h) induction of mu and sigma 1 transcripts. On the other hand, the GST transcriptional changes in hepatopancreas were characterized by a later induction (48 h) of mu transcript, but also by an early inhibition (6 h) of the four transcripts. The different transcription patterns obtained for the tested GST isoforms in this study highlight the potential divergent physiological roles played by these isoenzymes during the detoxification of MC-LR. View Full-Text
Keywords: microcystins; glutathione transferases; real-time PCR; R. philippinarum; detoxification; biomarker microcystins; glutathione transferases; real-time PCR; R. philippinarum; detoxification; biomarker
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Reis, B.; Carneiro, M.; Machado, J.; Azevedo, J.; Vasconcelos, V.; Martins, J.C. Transcriptional Responses of Glutathione Transferase Genes in Ruditapes philippinarum Exposed to Microcystin-LR. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16, 8397-8414.

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