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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(3), 6153-6182; doi:10.3390/ijms16036153

New Therapies for Dedifferentiated Papillary Thyroid Cancer

1
Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Pisa, Via Savi, 10, 56126 Pisa, Italy
2
Department of Clinical & Experimental Medicine, Section of Endocrinology, University of Messina, Piazza Pugliatti, 1, 98122 Messina, Italy
3
Department of Surgical, Medical, Molecular Pathology and Critical Area, University of Pisa, Via Savi, 10, 56126 Pisa, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: William Chi-shing Cho
Received: 30 December 2014 / Revised: 14 February 2015 / Accepted: 4 March 2015 / Published: 17 March 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Molecular Oncology 2014)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [892 KB, uploaded 17 March 2015]   |  

Abstract

The number of thyroid cancers is increasing. Standard treatment usually includes primary surgery, thyroid-stimulating hormone suppressive therapy, and ablation of the thyroid remnant with radioactive iodine (RAI). Despite the generally good prognosis of thyroid carcinoma, about 5% of patients will develop metastatic disease, which fails to respond to RAI, exhibiting a more aggressive behavior. The lack of specific, effective and well-tolerated drugs, the scarcity of data about the association of multi-targeting drugs, and the limited role of radioiodine for dedifferentiated thyroid cancer, call for further efforts in the field of new drugs development. Rearranged during transfection (RET)/papillary thyroid carcinoma gene rearrangements, BRAF (B-RAF proto-oncogene, serine/threonine kinase) gene mutations, RAS (rat sarcoma) mutations, and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 angiogenesis pathways are some of the known pathways playing a crucial role in the development of thyroid cancer. Targeted novel compounds have been demonstrated to induce clinical responses and stabilization of disease. Sorafenib has been approved for differentiated thyroid cancer refractory to RAI. View Full-Text
Keywords: dedifferentiated thyroid cancer; radioiodine; papillary thyroid carcinoma; RET (REarranged during Transfection); BRAF (B-Raf proto-oncogene, serine/threonine kinase); RAS (Rat Sarcoma); vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2; vandetanib; cabozantinib; sorafenib dedifferentiated thyroid cancer; radioiodine; papillary thyroid carcinoma; RET (REarranged during Transfection); BRAF (B-Raf proto-oncogene, serine/threonine kinase); RAS (Rat Sarcoma); vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2; vandetanib; cabozantinib; sorafenib
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Fallahi, P.; Mazzi, V.; Vita, R.; Ferrari, S.M.; Materazzi, G.; Galleri, D.; Benvenga, S.; Miccoli, P.; Antonelli, A. New Therapies for Dedifferentiated Papillary Thyroid Cancer. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16, 6153-6182.

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