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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(3), 6093-6112; doi:10.3390/ijms16036093

Osteoarthritis in the XXIst Century: Risk Factors and Behaviours that Influence Disease Onset and Progression

1
Department of Biomedical and Biotechnological Sciences, Human Anatomy and Histology Section, School of Medicine, University of Catania, Via S. Sofia 87, 95123 Catania, Italy
2
Department of Biomedical and Biotechnological Sciences, Pathology Section, School of Medicine, University of Catania, 95123 Catania, Italy
3
The D-BOARD European Consortium for Biomarker Discovery, Department of Veterinary Preclinical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH, UK
4
Arthritis Research UK Centre for Sport, Exercise and Osteoarthritis, Arthritis Research UK Pain Centre, Medical Research Council and Arthritis Research UK Centre for Musculoskeletal Ageing Research, University of Nottingham, Queen's Medical Centre, Nottingham NG7 2UH, UK
5
Center of Excellence in Genomic Medicine Research (CEGMR), King Fahd Medical Research Center (KFMRC), King AbdulAziz University, Jeddah 21589, Saudi Arabia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Julian Borejdo
Received: 2 February 2015 / Revised: 6 March 2015 / Accepted: 12 March 2015 / Published: 16 March 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Apoptotic Chondrocytes and Osteoarthritis)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1462 KB, uploaded 16 March 2015]   |  

Abstract

Osteoarthritis (OA) is a growing public health problem across the globe, affecting more than half of the over 65 population. In the past, OA was considered a wear and tear disease, leading to the loss of articular cartilage and joint disability. Nowadays, thanks to advancements in molecular biology, OA is believed to be a very complex multifactorial disease. OA is a degenerative disease characterized by “low-grade inflammation” in cartilage and synovium, resulting in the loss of joint structure and progressive deterioration of cartilage. Although the disease can be dependent on genetic and epigenetic factors, sex, ethnicity, and age (cellular senescence, apoptosis and lubricin), it is also associated with obesity and overweight, dietary factors, sedentary lifestyle and sport injuries. The aim of this review is to highlight how certain behaviors, habits and lifestyles may be involved in the onset and progression of OA and to summarize the principal risk factors involved in the development of this complicated joint disorder. View Full-Text
Keywords: osteoarthritis (OA); risk factors; diet; sedentary lifestyle; high intensity and ballistic sports osteoarthritis (OA); risk factors; diet; sedentary lifestyle; high intensity and ballistic sports
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Musumeci, G.; Aiello, F.C.; Szychlinska, M.A.; Di Rosa, M.; Castrogiovanni, P.; Mobasheri, A. Osteoarthritis in the XXIst Century: Risk Factors and Behaviours that Influence Disease Onset and Progression. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16, 6093-6112.

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