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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(3), 4744-4758; doi:10.3390/ijms16034744

Transcriptome Analysis in Rat Kidneys: Importance of Genes Involved in Programmed Hypertension

1
Department of Pediatrics, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung 833, Taiwan
2
Center for Translational Research in Biomedical Sciences, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung 833, Taiwan
3
Department of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chang Gung University, Linkow 244, Taiwan
4
Division of Nephrology, Departments of Medicine, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung 833, Taiwan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Robert J. Norman
Received: 29 December 2014 / Revised: 9 February 2015 / Accepted: 17 February 2015 / Published: 2 March 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Reproductive Biology)
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Abstract

Suboptimal conditions in pregnancy can elicit long-term effects on the health of offspring. The most common outcome is programmed hypertension. We examined whether there are common genes and pathways in the kidney are responsible for generating programmed hypertension among three different models using next generation RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) technology. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats received dexamethasone (DEX, 0.1 mg/kg) from gestational day 16 to 22, 60% high-fructose (HF) diet, or NG-nitro-l-arginine-methyester (l-NAME, 60 mg/kg/day) to conduct DEX, HF, or l-NAME model respectively. All three models elicited programmed hypertension in adult male offspring. We observed five shared genes (Bcl6, Dmrtc1c, Egr1, Inmt, and Olr1668) among three different models. The identified differential genes (DEGs) that are related to regulation of blood pressure included Aqp2, Ptgs1, Eph2x, Hba-a2, Apln, Guca2b, Hmox1, and Npy. RNA-Seq identified genes in arachidonic acid metabolism are potentially gatekeeper genes contributing to programmed hypertension. In addition, HF and DEX increased expression and activity of soluble epoxide hydrolase (Ephx2 gene encoding protein). Conclusively, the DEGs in arachidonic acid metabolism are potentially gatekeeper genes in programmed hypertension. The roles of DEGs identified by the RNA-Seq in this study deserve further clarification, to develop the potential interventions in the prevention of programmed hypertension. View Full-Text
Keywords: arachidonic acid; developmental programming; fructose; glucocorticoid; hypertension; next generation sequencing; nitric oxide arachidonic acid; developmental programming; fructose; glucocorticoid; hypertension; next generation sequencing; nitric oxide
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MDPI and ACS Style

Tain, Y.-L.; Huang, L.-T.; Chan, J.Y.H.; Lee, C.-T. Transcriptome Analysis in Rat Kidneys: Importance of Genes Involved in Programmed Hypertension. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16, 4744-4758.

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