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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(2), 4161-4179; doi:10.3390/ijms16024161

Biological Functions of Thyroid Hormone in Placenta

1
Department of Medical Research, Mackay Memorial Hospital, Taipei 251, Taiwan
2
Division of High Risk Pregnancy, Mackay Memorial Hospital, Taipei 104, Taiwan
3
Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Chang-Gung University, Taoyuan 333, Taiwan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 3 November 2014 / Revised: 3 February 2015 / Accepted: 4 February 2015 / Published: 16 February 2015
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular and Cellular Biology)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1360 KB, uploaded 16 February 2015]   |  

Abstract

The thyroid hormone, 3,3,5-triiodo-l-thyronine (T3), modulates several physiological processes, including cellular growth, differentiation, metabolism, inflammation and proliferation, via interactions with thyroid hormone response elements (TREs) in the regulatory regions of target genes. Infection and inflammation are critical processes in placental development and pregnancy-related diseases. In particular, infection is the leading cause of neonatal mortality and morbidity worldwide. However, to date, no successful approach has been developed for the effective diagnosis of infection in preterm infants. Pre-eclampsia (PE) is a serious disorder that adversely affects ~5% of human pregnancies. Recent studies identified a multiprotein complex, the inflammasome, including the Nod-like receptor (NLR) family of cytosolic pattern recognition receptors, the adaptor protein apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a caspase recruitment domain (ASC) and caspase-1, which plays a vital role in the placenta. The thyroid hormone modulates inflammation processes and is additionally implicated in placental development and disease. Therefore, elucidation of thyroid hormone receptor-regulated inflammation-related molecules, and their underlying mechanisms in placenta, should facilitate the identification of novel predictive and therapeutic targets for placental disorders. This review provides a detailed summary of current knowledge with respect to identification of useful biomarkers and their physiological significance in placenta. View Full-Text
Keywords: thyroid hormone receptor; infection; inflammasome; proteomics; placenta thyroid hormone receptor; infection; inflammasome; proteomics; placenta
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Chen, C.-Y.; Chen, C.-P.; Lin, K.-H. Biological Functions of Thyroid Hormone in Placenta. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16, 4161-4179.

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