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Correction: Wai, M.G.C., et al. A Review of Pinealectomy-Induced Melatonin-Deficient Animal Models for the Study of Etiopathogenesis of Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15, 16484–16499
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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(2), 3019-3034; doi:10.3390/ijms16023019

Reactive Oxygen and Nitrogen Species in Defense/Stress Responses Activated by Chitosan in Sycamore Cultured Cells

1
Dipartimento di Biotecnologie e Bioscienze, Università degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca, Piazza della Scienza 2, Milan 20126, Italy
2
Dipartimento di Scienze dell'Ambiente e del Territorio e di Scienze della Terra, Università degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca, Piazza della Scienza 1, Milan 20126, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Ann Cuypers and Tony Remans
Received: 22 December 2014 / Revised: 12 January 2015 / Accepted: 23 January 2015 / Published: 29 January 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Abiotic Stress and Gene Networks in Plants)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [434 KB, uploaded 29 January 2015]   |  

Abstract

Chitosan (CHT) is a non-toxic and inexpensive compound obtained by deacetylation of chitin, the main component of the exoskeleton of arthropods as well as of the cell walls of many fungi. In agriculture CHT is used to control numerous diseases on various horticultural commodities but, although different mechanisms have been proposed, the exact mode of action of CHT is still unknown. In sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus L.) cultured cells, CHT induces a set of defense/stress responses that includes production of H2O2 and nitric oxide (NO). We investigated the possible signaling role of these reactive molecules in some CHT-induced responses by means of inhibitors of production and/or scavengers. The results show that both reactive nitrogen and oxygen species are not only a mere symptom of stress conditions but are involved in the responses induced by CHT in sycamore cells. In particular, NO appears to be involved in a cell death form induced by CHT that shows apoptotic features like DNA fragmentation, increase in caspase-3-like activity and release of cytochrome c from the mitochondrion. On the contrary, reactive oxygen species (ROS) appear involved in a cell death form induced by CHT that does not show these apoptotic features but presents increase in lipid peroxidation. View Full-Text
Keywords: Acer pseudoplatanus L.; cell death; chitosan; defense response; reactive oxygen species (ROS); reactive nitrogen species (RNS); stress Acer pseudoplatanus L.; cell death; chitosan; defense response; reactive oxygen species (ROS); reactive nitrogen species (RNS); stress
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Malerba, M.; Cerana, R. Reactive Oxygen and Nitrogen Species in Defense/Stress Responses Activated by Chitosan in Sycamore Cultured Cells. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16, 3019-3034.

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