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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(12), 30483-30543; doi:10.3390/ijms161226236

Epigenetics of Aging and Alzheimer’s Disease: Implications for Pharmacogenomics and Drug Response

1
EuroEspes Biomedical Research Center, Institute of Medical Science and Genomic Medicine, 15165-Bergondo, Corunna, Spain
2
Chair of Genomic Medicine, Camilo José Cela University, 28692-Madrid, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Sabrina Angelini
Received: 30 September 2015 / Revised: 16 November 2015 / Accepted: 8 December 2015 / Published: 21 December 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pharmacogenetics and Personalized Medicine)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [4039 KB, uploaded 21 December 2015]

Abstract

Epigenetic variability (DNA methylation/demethylation, histone modifications, microRNA regulation) is common in physiological and pathological conditions. Epigenetic alterations are present in different tissues along the aging process and in neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Epigenetics affect life span and longevity. AD-related genes exhibit epigenetic changes, indicating that epigenetics might exert a pathogenic role in dementia. Epigenetic modifications are reversible and can potentially be targeted by pharmacological intervention. Epigenetic drugs may be useful for the treatment of major problems of health (e.g., cancer, cardiovascular disorders, brain disorders). The efficacy and safety of these and other medications depend upon the efficiency of the pharmacogenetic process in which different clusters of genes (pathogenic, mechanistic, metabolic, transporter, pleiotropic) are involved. Most of these genes are also under the influence of the epigenetic machinery. The information available on the pharmacoepigenomics of most drugs is very limited; however, growing evidence indicates that epigenetic changes are determinant in the pathogenesis of many medical conditions and in drug response and drug resistance. Consequently, pharmacoepigenetic studies should be incorporated in drug development and personalized treatments. View Full-Text
Keywords: aging; Alzheimer’s disease; brain disorders; epigenetics; epigenetic drugs; drug resistance; pharmacogenomics; pharmacoepigenomics aging; Alzheimer’s disease; brain disorders; epigenetics; epigenetic drugs; drug resistance; pharmacogenomics; pharmacoepigenomics
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Cacabelos, R.; Torrellas, C. Epigenetics of Aging and Alzheimer’s Disease: Implications for Pharmacogenomics and Drug Response. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16, 30483-30543.

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