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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(12), 28943-28978; doi:10.3390/ijms161226138

Non-Coding RNAs in Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer: Regulation of Androgen Receptor Signaling and Cancer Metabolism

1
Integrated Translational Lab, The Center of Translational Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 11031, Taiwan
2
The Ph.D. Program for Translational Medicine, College of Medical Science and Technology, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 11031, Taiwan
3
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Medicine, Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California at Davis, Sacramento, CA 95817, USA
4
Institute of Molecular and Genomic Medicine, National Health Research Institutes, Zhunan, Miaoli County 35053, Taiwan
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Martin Pichler
Received: 5 October 2015 / Revised: 17 November 2015 / Accepted: 26 November 2015 / Published: 4 December 2015
(This article belongs to the Collection Regulation by Non-Coding RNAs)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1755 KB, uploaded 4 December 2015]   |  

Abstract

Hormone-refractory prostate cancer frequently relapses from therapy and inevitably progresses to a bone-metastatic status with no cure. Understanding of the molecular mechanisms conferring resistance to androgen deprivation therapy has the potential to lead to the discovery of novel therapeutic targets for type of prostate cancer with poor prognosis. Progression to castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) is characterized by aberrant androgen receptor (AR) expression and persistent AR signaling activity. Alterations in metabolic activity regulated by oncogenic pathways, such as c-Myc, were found to promote prostate cancer growth during the development of CRPC. Non-coding RNAs represent a diverse family of regulatory transcripts that drive tumorigenesis of prostate cancer and various other cancers by their hyperactivity or diminished function. A number of studies have examined differentially expressed non-coding RNAs in each stage of prostate cancer. Herein, we highlight the emerging impacts of microRNAs and long non-coding RNAs linked to reactivation of the AR signaling axis and reprogramming of the cellular metabolism in prostate cancer. The translational implications of non-coding RNA research for developing new biomarkers and therapeutic strategies for CRPC are also discussed. View Full-Text
Keywords: non-coding RNA; micro RNAs; long non-coding RNAs; castration-resistant prostate cancer; androgen receptor; cancer metabolism non-coding RNA; micro RNAs; long non-coding RNAs; castration-resistant prostate cancer; androgen receptor; cancer metabolism
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Shih, J.-W.; Wang, L.-Y.; Hung, C.-L.; Kung, H.-J.; Hsieh, C.-L. Non-Coding RNAs in Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer: Regulation of Androgen Receptor Signaling and Cancer Metabolism. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16, 28943-28978.

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