Next Article in Journal
Simultaneous Analysis of SEPT9 Promoter Methylation Status, Micronuclei Frequency, and Folate-Related Gene Polymorphisms: The Potential for a Novel Blood-Based Colorectal Cancer Biomarker
Previous Article in Journal
Characterization of Morphological and Cellular Events Underlying Oral Regeneration in the Sea Anemone, Nematostella vectensis
Article Menu
Issue 12 (December) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(12), 28472-28485; doi:10.3390/ijms161226110

Molecular Evolution of the TET Gene Family in Mammals

1
United Graduate School of Drug Discovery and Medical Information Sciences, Gifu University, 1-1 Yanagido, Gifu 501-1194, Japan
2
Department of Statistics, the University of Auckland, Auckland 1010, New Zealand
3
Department of Functional Bioscience, Gifu University School of Medicine, 1-1 Yanagido, Gifu 501-1193, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Michael Ibba
Received: 2 October 2015 / Revised: 10 November 2015 / Accepted: 18 November 2015 / Published: 1 December 2015
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular and Cellular Biology)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1436 KB, uploaded 1 December 2015]   |  

Abstract

Ten-eleven translocation (TET) proteins, a family of Fe2+- and 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases, are involved in DNA demethylation. They also help regulate various cellular functions. Three TET paralogs have been identified (TET1, TET2, and TET3) in humans. This study focuses on the evolution of mammalian TET genes. Distinct patterns in TET1 and TET2 vs. TET3 were revealed by codon-based tests of positive selection. Results indicate that TET1 and TET2 genes have experienced positive selection more frequently than TET3 gene, and that the majority of codon sites evolved under strong negative selection. These findings imply that the selective pressure on TET3 may have been relaxed in several lineages during the course of evolution. Our analysis of convergent amino acid substitutions also supports the different evolutionary dynamics among TET gene subfamily members. All of the five amino acid sites that are inferred to have evolved under positive selection in the catalytic domain of TET2 are localized at the protein’s outer surface. The adaptive changes of these positively selected amino acid sites could be associated with dynamic interactions between other TET-interacting proteins, and positive selection thus appears to shift the regulatory scheme of TET enzyme function. View Full-Text
Keywords: molecular evolution; ten-eleven translocation (TET) protein; positive selection; mammal molecular evolution; ten-eleven translocation (TET) protein; positive selection; mammal
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Akahori, H.; Guindon, S.; Yoshizaki, S.; Muto, Y. Molecular Evolution of the TET Gene Family in Mammals. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16, 28472-28485.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top