Next Article in Journal
Evodiamine Attenuates PDGF-BB-Induced Migration of Rat Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells through Activating PPARγ
Previous Article in Journal
miR-218 Inhibits Erythroid Differentiation and Alters Iron Metabolism by Targeting ALAS2 in K562 Cells
Article Menu
Issue 12 (December) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(12), 28169-28179; doi:10.3390/ijms161226089

Linalool Induces Cell Cycle Arrest and Apoptosis in Leukemia Cells and Cervical Cancer Cells through CDKIs

1
Department of Medical Laboratory Science and Biotechnology, School of Medical and Health Sciences, Fooyin University, Ta-Liao District, Kaohsiung 83102, Taiwan
2
Department of Biotechnology, Collage of Pharmacy and Health Care, Tajen University, Yanpu Township, Pingtung County 90741, Taiwan
3
Department of Nutrition and Health Science, School of Medical and Health Sciences, Fooyin University, Ta-Liao District, Kaohsiung 83102, Taiwan
4
Department of Physical Therapy, School of Medical and Health Sciences, Fooyin University, Ta-Liao District, Kaohsiung 83102, Taiwan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Guido R. M. M. Haenen
Received: 15 October 2015 / Revised: 17 November 2015 / Accepted: 17 November 2015 / Published: 26 November 2015
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Toxicology)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1473 KB, uploaded 30 November 2015]   |  

Abstract

Plantaginaceae, a popular traditional Chinese medicine, has long been used for treating various diseases from common cold to cancer. Linalool is one of the biologically active compounds that can be isolated from Plantaginaceae. Most of the commonly used cytotoxic anticancer drugs have been shown to induce apoptosis in susceptible tumor cells. However, the signaling pathway for apoptosis remains undefined. In this study, the cytotoxic effect of linalool on human cancer cell lines was investigated. Water-soluble tetrazolium salts (WST-1) based colorimetric cellular cytotoxicity assay, was used to test the cytotoxic ability of linalool against U937 and HeLa cells, and flow cytometry (FCM) and genechip analysis were used to investigate the possible mechanism of apoptosis. These results demonstrated that linalool exhibited a good cytotoxic effect on U937 and HeLa cells, with the IC50 value of 2.59 and 11.02 μM, respectively, compared with 5-FU with values of 4.86 and 12.31 μM, respectively. After treating U937 cells with linalool for 6 h, we found an increased sub-G1 peak and a dose-dependent phenomenon, whereby these cells were arrested at the G0/G1 phase. Furthermore, by using genechip analysis, we observed that linalool can promote p53, p21, p27, p16, and p18 gene expression. Therefore, this study verified that linalool can arrest the cell cycle of U937 cells at the G0/G1 phase and can arrest the cell cycle of HeLa cells at the G2/M phase. Its mechanism facilitates the expression of the cyclin-dependent kinases inhibitors (CDKIs) p53, p21, p27, p16, and p18, as well as the non-expression of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) activity. View Full-Text
Keywords: linalool; apoptosis; flow cytometry (FCM); cyclin-dependent kinases inhibitors (CDKIs); cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs); genechip linalool; apoptosis; flow cytometry (FCM); cyclin-dependent kinases inhibitors (CDKIs); cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs); genechip
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Chang, M.-Y.; Shieh, D.-E.; Chen, C.-C.; Yeh, C.-S.; Dong, H.-P. Linalool Induces Cell Cycle Arrest and Apoptosis in Leukemia Cells and Cervical Cancer Cells through CDKIs. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16, 28169-28179.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top