Linalool Induces Cell Cycle Arrest and Apoptosis in Leukemia Cells and Cervical Cancer Cells through CDKIs
AbstractPlantaginaceae, a popular traditional Chinese medicine, has long been used for treating various diseases from common cold to cancer. Linalool is one of the biologically active compounds that can be isolated from Plantaginaceae. Most of the commonly used cytotoxic anticancer drugs have been shown to induce apoptosis in susceptible tumor cells. However, the signaling pathway for apoptosis remains undefined. In this study, the cytotoxic effect of linalool on human cancer cell lines was investigated. Water-soluble tetrazolium salts (WST-1) based colorimetric cellular cytotoxicity assay, was used to test the cytotoxic ability of linalool against U937 and HeLa cells, and flow cytometry (FCM) and genechip analysis were used to investigate the possible mechanism of apoptosis. These results demonstrated that linalool exhibited a good cytotoxic effect on U937 and HeLa cells, with the IC50 value of 2.59 and 11.02 μM, respectively, compared with 5-FU with values of 4.86 and 12.31 μM, respectively. After treating U937 cells with linalool for 6 h, we found an increased sub-G1 peak and a dose-dependent phenomenon, whereby these cells were arrested at the G0/G1 phase. Furthermore, by using genechip analysis, we observed that linalool can promote p53, p21, p27, p16, and p18 gene expression. Therefore, this study verified that linalool can arrest the cell cycle of U937 cells at the G0/G1 phase and can arrest the cell cycle of HeLa cells at the G2/M phase. Its mechanism facilitates the expression of the cyclin-dependent kinases inhibitors (CDKIs) p53, p21, p27, p16, and p18, as well as the non-expression of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) activity. View Full-Text
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Chang, M.-Y.; Shieh, D.-E.; Chen, C.-C.; Yeh, C.-S.; Dong, H.-P. Linalool Induces Cell Cycle Arrest and Apoptosis in Leukemia Cells and Cervical Cancer Cells through CDKIs. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16, 28169-28179.
Chang M-Y, Shieh D-E, Chen C-C, Yeh C-S, Dong H-P. Linalool Induces Cell Cycle Arrest and Apoptosis in Leukemia Cells and Cervical Cancer Cells through CDKIs. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2015; 16(12):28169-28179.Chicago/Turabian Style
Chang, Mei-Yin; Shieh, Den-En; Chen, Chung-Chi; Yeh, Ching-Sheng; Dong, Huei-Ping. 2015. "Linalool Induces Cell Cycle Arrest and Apoptosis in Leukemia Cells and Cervical Cancer Cells through CDKIs." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 16, no. 12: 28169-28179.