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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(11), 27967-27977; doi:10.3390/ijms161126066

Effects of Monotypic and Binary Mixtures of Metal Oxide Nanoparticles on Microbial Growth in Sandy Soil Collected from Artificial Recharge Sites

1
Groundwater Department, Geologic Environment Division, Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources (KIGAM), Daejeon 34132, Korea
2
Department of Environmental Engineering, Yeungnam University, Gyeongbuk 38541, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Michael Routledge
Received: 23 September 2015 / Revised: 17 November 2015 / Accepted: 17 November 2015 / Published: 24 November 2015
(This article belongs to the Collection Bioactive Nanoparticles)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [814 KB, uploaded 24 November 2015]   |  

Abstract

The potential effects of monotypic and binary metal oxide nanoparticles (NPs, ZnO, NiO, Co3O4 and TiO2) on microbial growth were evaluated in sandy soil collected from artificial recharge sites. Microbial growth was assessed based on adenosine triphosphate (ATP) content, dehydrogenase activity (DHA), and viable cell counts (VCC). Microbial growth based on ATP content and VCC showed considerable differences depending on NP type and concentration, whereas DHA did not significantly change. In general, ZnO NPs showed the strongest effect on microbial growth in all measurements, showing an EC50 value of 10.9 mg/L for ATP content. The ranking (EC50) of NPs based on their effect on microbial growth assessed by ATP content and VCC was ZnO > Co3O4 > NiO > TiO2. Upon exposure to binary NP mixtures, synergistic and additive modes of action were observed for ATP content and VCC, respectively. The ranges of observed (P(O)) and expected (P(E)) activity were 83%–92% and 78%–82% of the control (p-value 0.0010) based on ATP content and 78%–95% and 72%–94% of the control (p-value 0.8813) based on VCC under the tested conditions, respectively. The results indicate that the effects of NP mixtures on microbial growth in the sandy soil matrix were as great, or greater, than those of single NPs. Therefore, understanding the effects of single NPs and NP mixtures is essential for proper ecological risk assessment. Additionally, these findings demonstrate that the evaluation of NP effects may be profoundly influenced by the method of microbial growth measurement. View Full-Text
Keywords: ATP; DHA; nanoparticles; microbial growth; mixture; soil; VCC ATP; DHA; nanoparticles; microbial growth; mixture; soil; VCC
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Ko, K.-S.; Ha, K.; Kong, I.C. Effects of Monotypic and Binary Mixtures of Metal Oxide Nanoparticles on Microbial Growth in Sandy Soil Collected from Artificial Recharge Sites. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16, 27967-27977.

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