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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(11), 27457-27469; doi:10.3390/ijms161126040

Protective Effects of Cardamom in Isoproterenol-Induced Myocardial Infarction in Rats

1
Department of Pharmacology, R.C. Patel Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Shirpur, Maharashtra 425405, India
2
Department of Pharmacology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi 110029, India
3
Department of Internal Medicine, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, United Arab Emirates University, Al Ain, Abu Dhabi 17666, United Arab Emirates
4
Department of Pharmaceutics, R.C. Patel Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Shirpur, Maharashtra 425405, India
5
Division of Plant Physiology, Indian Agriculture Research institute, New Delhi 110029, India
6
Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, United Arab Emirates University, Al Ain, Abu Dhabi 17666, United Arab Emirates
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Guido R. M. M. Haenen
Received: 7 September 2015 / Revised: 3 October 2015 / Accepted: 4 November 2015 / Published: 17 November 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidant 2.0——Redox Modulation by Food and Drugs)
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Abstract

Cardamom is a popular spice that has been commonly used in cuisines for flavor since ancient times. It has copious health benefits such as improving digestion, stimulating metabolism, and exhibits antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. The current study investigated the effect of cardamom on hemodynamic, biochemical, histopathological and ultrastructural changes in isoproterenol (ISO)-induced myocardial infarction. Wistar male albino rats were randomly divided and treated with extract of cardamom (100 and 200 mg/kg per oral) or normal saline for 30 days with concomitant administration of ISO (85 mg/kg, subcutaneous) on 29th and 30th days, at 24 h interval. ISO injections to rats caused cardiac dysfunction evidenced by declined arterial pressure indices, heart rate, contractility and relaxation along with increased preload. ISO also caused a significant decrease in endogenous antioxidants, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, depletion of cardiomyocytes enzymes, creatine kinase-MB, lactate dehydrogenase and increase in lipid peroxidation. All these changes in cardiac and left ventricular function as well as endogenous antioxidants, lipid peroxidation and myocyte enzymes were ameliorated when the rats were pretreated with cardamom. Additionally, the protective effects were strengthened by improved histopathology and ultrastructural changes, which specifies the salvage of cardiomyocytes from the deleterious effects of ISO. The present study findings demonstrate that cardamom significantly protects the myocardium and exerts cardioprotective effects by free radical scavenging and antioxidant activities. View Full-Text
Keywords: antioxidants; isoproterenol; cardamom; myocardial infarction; ROS antioxidants; isoproterenol; cardamom; myocardial infarction; ROS
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Goyal, S.N.; Sharma, C.; Mahajan, U.B.; Patil, C.R.; Agrawal, Y.O.; Kumari, S.; Arya, D.S.; Ojha, S. Protective Effects of Cardamom in Isoproterenol-Induced Myocardial Infarction in Rats. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16, 27457-27469.

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