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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(11), 27156-27170; doi:10.3390/ijms161126013

Long-Term Anti-Allodynic Effect of Immediate Pulsed Radiofrequency Modulation through Down-Regulation of Insulin-Like Growth Factor 2 in a Neuropathic Pain Model

1
Department of Chemistry, Fu-Jen Catholic University and Graduate Institute of Basic Medicine, Fu-Jen Catholic University, New Taipei City 24205, Taiwan
2
Department of Anesthesiology and Integrated Pain Management Center, Tri-Service General Hospital and National Defense Medical Center, Taipei 11490, Taiwan
3
School of Medicine, Fu Jen Catholic University, New Taipei City 24205, Taiwan
4
Department of Anesthesiology, Sijhih Cathay General Hospital, New Taipei City 22174, Taiwan
5
Department of Medical Research, Cathay General Hospital, Taipei 10631, Taiwan
6
Department of Biochemistry, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei 11490, Taiwan
7
Department of Anesthesiology, Cathay General Hospital, Taipei 10631, Taiwan
8
Department of Pain Medicine, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030, USA
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Johannes Haybaeck
Received: 24 August 2015 / Revised: 30 October 2015 / Accepted: 4 November 2015 / Published: 13 November 2015
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular and Cellular Biology)
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Abstract

Pulsed radiofrequency (PRF) is effective in the treatment of neuropathic pain in clinical practice. Its application to sites proximal to nerve injury can inhibit the activity of extra-cellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) for up to 28 days. The spared nerve injury (SNI)+ immPRF group (immediate exposure to PRF for 6 min after SNI) exhibited a greater anti-allodynic effect compared with the control group (SNI alone) or the SNI + postPRF group (application of PRF for 6 min on the 14th day after SNI). Insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) was selected using microarray assays and according to web-based gene ontology annotations in the SNI + immPRF group. An increase in IGF2 and activation of ERK1/2 were attenuated by the immPRF treatment compared with an SNI control group. Using immunofluorescent staining, we detected co-localized phosphorylated ERK1/2 and IGF2 in the dorsal horn regions of rats from the SNI group, where the IGF2 protein predominantly arose in CD11b- or NeuN-positive cells, whereas IGF2 immunoreactivity was not detected in the SNI + immPRF group. Taken together, these results suggest that PRF treatment immediately after nerve injury significantly inhibited the development of neuropathic pain with a lasting effect, most likely through IGF2 down-regulation and the inhibition of ERK1/2 activity primarily in microglial cells. View Full-Text
Keywords: pulsed radiofrequency; spared nerve injury; extra-cellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2; Insulin-like growth factor II; gene ontology annotations pulsed radiofrequency; spared nerve injury; extra-cellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2; Insulin-like growth factor II; gene ontology annotations
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Yeh, C.-C.; Sun, H.-L.; Huang, C.-J.; Wong, C.-S.; Cherng, C.-H.; Huh, B.K.; Wang, J.-S.; Chien, C.-C. Long-Term Anti-Allodynic Effect of Immediate Pulsed Radiofrequency Modulation through Down-Regulation of Insulin-Like Growth Factor 2 in a Neuropathic Pain Model. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16, 27156-27170.

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