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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(11), 27145-27155; doi:10.3390/ijms161126015

Antibacterial Activity of Shikimic Acid from Pine Needles of Cedrus deodara against Staphylococcus aureus through Damage to Cell Membrane

1
Department of Food Science and Technology, College of Light Industry, Textile and Food Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065, China
2
Department of Public Health, West China Medical School, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Sanjay K. Srivastava
Received: 7 September 2015 / Revised: 19 October 2015 / Accepted: 3 November 2015 / Published: 13 November 2015
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular and Cellular Biology)
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Abstract

Shikimic acid (SA) has been reported to possess antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, whereas the mode of action of SA is still elusive. In this study, the antibacterial activity and mechanism of SA toward S. aureus by cell membrane damage was investigated. After SA treatment, massive K+ and nucleotide leakage from S. aureus, and a significant change in the membrane potential was observed, suggesting SA may act on the membrane by destroying the cell membrane permeability. Through transmission electron microscopic observations we further confirmed that SA can disrupt the cell membrane and membrane integrity. Meanwhile, SA was found to be capable of reducing the membrane fluidity of the S. aureus cell. Moreover, the fluorescence experiments indicated that SA could quench fluorescence of Phe residues of the membrane proteins, thus demonstrating that SA can bind to S. aureus membrane proteins. Therefore, these results showed the antibacterial activity of SA against S. aureus could be caused by the interactions of SA with S. aureus membrane proteins and lipids, resulting in causing cell membrane dysfunction and bacterial damage or even death. This study reveals the potential use of SA as an antibacterial agent. View Full-Text
Keywords: shikimic acid; antibacterial activity; Staphylococcus aureus; membrane damage; membrane proteins; membrane lipids shikimic acid; antibacterial activity; Staphylococcus aureus; membrane damage; membrane proteins; membrane lipids
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MDPI and ACS Style

Bai, J.; Wu, Y.; Liu, X.; Zhong, K.; Huang, Y.; Gao, H. Antibacterial Activity of Shikimic Acid from Pine Needles of Cedrus deodara against Staphylococcus aureus through Damage to Cell Membrane. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16, 27145-27155.

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