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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(11), 26738-26753; doi:10.3390/ijms161125982

The Effect of Alendronate Loaded Biphasic Calcium Phosphate Scaffolds on Bone Regeneration in a Rat Tibial Defect Model

Institute for Rare Diseases and Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Korea University Medical Center, Guro Hospital, 148 Gurodong-ro, Guro-gu, Seoul 152-703, Korea
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Mohamed Rahaman
Received: 2 August 2015 / Revised: 22 October 2015 / Accepted: 27 October 2015 / Published: 6 November 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomaterials for Tissue Engineering)
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Abstract

This study investigated the effect of alendronate (Aln) released from biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) scaffolds. We evaluated the in vitro osteogenic differentiation of Aln/BCP scaffolds using MG-63 cells and the in vivo bone regenerative capability of Aln/BCP scaffolds using a rat tibial defect model with radiography, micro-computed tomography (CT), and histological examination. In vitro studies included the surface morphology of BCP and Aln-loaded BCP scaffolds visualized using field-emission scanning electron microscope, release kinetics of Aln from BCP scaffolds, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, calcium deposition, and gene expression. The in vitro studies showed that sustained release of Aln from the BCP scaffolds consisted of porous microstructures, and revealed that MG-63 cells cultured on Aln-loaded BCP scaffolds showed significantly increased ALP activity, calcium deposition, and gene expression compared to cells cultured on BCP scaffolds. The in vivo studies using radiograph and histology examination revealed abundant callus formation and bone maturation at the site in the Aln/BCP groups compared to the control group. However, solid bony bridge formation was not observed at plain radiographs until 8 weeks. Micro-CT analysis revealed that bone mineral density and bone formation volume were increased over time in an Aln concentration-dependent manner. These results suggested that Aln/BCP scaffolds have the potential for controlling the release of Aln and enhance bone formation and mineralization. View Full-Text
Keywords: alendronate; biphasic calcium phosphate; scaffold; bone formation alendronate; biphasic calcium phosphate; scaffold; bone formation
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Park, K.-W.; Yun, Y.-P.; Kim, S.E.; Song, H.-R. The Effect of Alendronate Loaded Biphasic Calcium Phosphate Scaffolds on Bone Regeneration in a Rat Tibial Defect Model. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16, 26738-26753.

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