Next Article in Journal
CRISPR/Cas9-Mediated Rapid Generation of Multiple Mouse Lines Identified Ccdc63 as Essential for Spermiogenesis
Next Article in Special Issue
Comparative Mitogenomics of the Genus Odontobutis (Perciformes: Gobioidei: Odontobutidae) Revealed Conserved Gene Rearrangement and High Sequence Variations
Previous Article in Journal
Surface-Deacetylated Chitin Nano-Fiber/Hyaluronic Acid Composites as Potential Antioxidative Compounds for Use in Extended-Release Matrix Tablets
Previous Article in Special Issue
Identification and Characterization of Reference Genes for Normalizing Expression Data from Red Swamp Crawfish Procambarus clarkii
Article Menu
Issue 10 (October) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(10), 24718-24731; doi:10.3390/ijms161024718

Biological Screening of Newly Synthesized BIAN N-Heterocyclic Gold Carbene Complexes in Zebrafish Embryos

1
Bioproducts Research Chair, Department of Zoology, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia
2
Department of Chemistry, the University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712, USA
3
Materials Science and Technology Program, College of Arts and Sciences, Qatar University, PO Box 2713, Doha, Qatar
4
Natural and Microbial Products Department, National Research Centre, Dokki, Cairo 12311, Egypt
5
Petrochemical Research Chair, Department of Chemistry, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Jun Li
Received: 8 July 2015 / Revised: 1 October 2015 / Accepted: 4 October 2015 / Published: 16 October 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fish Molecular Biology)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [4217 KB, uploaded 16 October 2015]   |  

Abstract

N-Heterocyclic carbene (NHC) metal complexes possess diverse biological activities but have yet to be extensively explored as potential chemotherapeutic agents. We have previously reported the synthesis of a new class of NHC metal complexes N-heterocyclic with acetate [IPr(BIAN)AuOAc] and chloride [IPr(BIAN)AuCl] ligands. In the experiments reported herein, the zebrafish embryos were exposed to serial dilutions of each of these complexes for 10–12 h. One hundred percent mortality was observed at concentrations ≥50 µM. At sub-lethal concentrations (10–30 µM), both compounds influenced zebrafish embryonic development. However, quite diverse categories of abnormalities were found in exposed embryos with each compound. Severe brain deformation and notochord degeneration were evident in the case of [IPr(BIAN)AuOAc]. The zebrafish embryos treated with [IPr(BIAN)AuCl] exhibited stunted growth and consequently had smaller body sizes. A depletion of 30%–40% glutathione was detected in the treated embryos, which could account for one of the possible mechanism of neurotoxicity. The fact that these compounds are capable of both affecting the growth and also compromising antioxidant systems by elevating intracellular ROS production implies that they could play an important role as a new breed of therapeutic molecules. View Full-Text
Keywords: BIAN; N-heterocyclic carbenes complexes; zebrafish; oxidative stress; neurotoxicity BIAN; N-heterocyclic carbenes complexes; zebrafish; oxidative stress; neurotoxicity
Figures

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Farooq, M.; Taha, N.A.; Butorac, R.R.; Evans, D.A.; Elzatahry, A.A.; Elsayed, E.A.; Wadaan, M.A.M.; Al-Deyab, S.S.; Cowley, A.H. Biological Screening of Newly Synthesized BIAN N-Heterocyclic Gold Carbene Complexes in Zebrafish Embryos. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16, 24718-24731.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top