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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(10), 24600-24613; doi:10.3390/ijms161024600

No Effect of Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation on Cognition and Mood in Individuals with Cognitive Impairment and Probable Alzheimer’s Disease: A Randomised Controlled Trial

1
School of Experimental Psychology, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1TU, UK
2
Human Development and Health Academic Unit, Faculty of Medicine, University of Southampton, Southampton SO16 6YD, UK
3
NIHR Southampton Biomedical Research Centre, University Hospital Southampton NHS Foundation Trust and University of Southampton, Southampton SO16 6YD, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Cenk Suphioglu and Maurizio Battino
Received: 30 July 2015 / Revised: 14 September 2015 / Accepted: 30 September 2015 / Published: 16 October 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Health and Diseases)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [712 KB, uploaded 16 October 2015]   |  

Abstract

Findings from epidemiological and observational studies have indicated that diets high in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) may reduce the risk of cognitive decline and Alzheimer’s disease (AD). To determine if increasing intake of DHA and EPA through supplementation is beneficial to cognition and mood in individuals with cognitive impairment no dementia (CIND) or Alzheimer’s disease (AD) a four month, randomised, double-blind, placebo controlled study was conducted. Fifty-seven participants with CIND and nineteen with AD were randomised to receive either omega-3 PUFAs (600 mg EPA and 625 mg DHA per day) or placebo (olive oil) over a four month period. Elevating depleted levels of EPA and DHA through supplementation in individuals with CIND or AD was found to have negligible beneficial effect on their cognition or mood. These findings confirm an overall negligible benefit of omega-3 PUFA supplementation for those with cognitive impairment and dementia. More intervention studies need to be undertaken with longer study durations and larger sample sizes. It may prove fruitful to examine effects of different doses as well as effects in other dementia subtypes. View Full-Text
Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease (AD); cognitive impairment no dementia (CIND); omega-3 fatty acids; eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA); docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) Alzheimer’s disease (AD); cognitive impairment no dementia (CIND); omega-3 fatty acids; eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA); docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Phillips, M.A.; Childs, C.E.; Calder, P.C.; Rogers, P.J. No Effect of Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation on Cognition and Mood in Individuals with Cognitive Impairment and Probable Alzheimer’s Disease: A Randomised Controlled Trial. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16, 24600-24613.

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