Reduced 5-Methylcytosine Level as a Potential Progression Predictor in Patients with T1 or Non-Invasive Urothelial Carcinoma
AbstractThis study aims to elucidate the level of DNA methylation in urothelial carcinomas (UCs) using 5-methylcytosine (5-MeC) immunohistochemistry (IHC). We examined the relationship among 5-MeC levels, DNA (cytosine-5)-methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) immunostaining levels, and clinicopathologic features. Tissue samples included 23 normal urothelia and 150 urothelial neoplasia, which comprised 40 non-invasive and 110 invasive UCs. The levels of 5-MeC and DNMT1 were assessed based on their immunoreactivities and then divided into low and high levels. In addition, we collected information on clinical variables, pathologic features, and recurrent status from patient questionnaires and medical records. Chi-square test and multivariate logistic regression model were used for analyses. Results showed that 5-MeC levels were positively associated with DNMT1 levels in UC (p = 0.0288). Both 5-MeC and DNMT1 were low in approximately 50% (76/150) of UC. The percentage of low 5-MeC levels was higher in invasive UC (65/110; 59%) than in normal urothelia (2/23; 13%) and non-invasive UC (18/40; 45%). Clinical factors were independently associated with low 5-MeC levels after adjusting for age and sex, including cancer stages II–IV, presence of UC in situ, and marked inflammation. Low 5-MeC levels in stage I invasive UC were not significantly different from those of non-invasive tumors (p = 0.8478). Low DNMT1 levels were only associated with UC with squamous differentiation (p = 0.0365). Neither 5-MeC nor DNMT1 levels were associated with UC recurrence. In conclusion, a low 5-MeC level could predict the progression of UC invasion into muscle. View Full-Text
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Chung, C.-J.; Chang, C.-H.; Chuu, C.-P.; Yang, C.-R.; Chang, Y.-H.; Huang, C.-P.; Chen, W.-C.; Chung, M.-C.; Chang, H. Reduced 5-Methylcytosine Level as a Potential Progression Predictor in Patients with T1 or Non-Invasive Urothelial Carcinoma. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16, 677-690.
Chung C-J, Chang C-H, Chuu C-P, Yang C-R, Chang Y-H, Huang C-P, Chen W-C, Chung M-C, Chang H. Reduced 5-Methylcytosine Level as a Potential Progression Predictor in Patients with T1 or Non-Invasive Urothelial Carcinoma. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2015; 16(1):677-690.Chicago/Turabian Style
Chung, Chi-Jung; Chang, Chao-Hsiang; Chuu, Chih-Pin; Yang, Chi-Rei; Chang, Yi-Huei; Huang, Chi-Ping; Chen, Wen-Chi; Chung, Mu-Chi; Chang, Han. 2015. "Reduced 5-Methylcytosine Level as a Potential Progression Predictor in Patients with T1 or Non-Invasive Urothelial Carcinoma." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 16, no. 1: 677-690.