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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(1), 1043-1050; doi:10.3390/ijms16011043

Hydrostatic Pressure Influences HIF-2 Alpha Expression in Chondrocytes

1
Department of Orthopaedics, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kawaramachi-Hirokoji, Kamigyo-ku, Kyoto 602-8566, Japan
2
Department of Immunology, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kawaramachi-Hirokoji, Kamigyo-ku, Kyoto 602-8566, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Pamela Lein
Received: 22 November 2014 / Accepted: 30 December 2014 / Published: 5 January 2015
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Toxicology)
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Abstract

Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-2α is considered to play a major role in the progression of osteoarthritis. Recently, it was reported that pressure amplitude influences HIF-2α expression in murine endothelial cells. We examined whether hydrostatic pressure is involved in expression of HIF-2α in articular chondrocytes. Chondrocytes were cultured and stimulated by inflammation or hydrostatic pressure of 0, 5, 10, or 50 MPa. After stimulation, heat shock protein (HSP) 70, HIF-2α, nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-13, MMP-3, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) gene expression were evaluated. The levels of all gene expression were increased by inflammatory stress. When chondrocytes were exposed to a hydrostatic pressure of 5 MPa, HIF-2α, MMP-13, and MMP-3 gene expression increased significantly although those of HSP70 and NF-κB were not significantly different from the control group. In contrast, HIF-2α gene expression did not increase under a hydrostatic pressure of 50 MPa although HSP70 and NF-κB expression increased significantly compared to control. We considered that hydrostatic pressure of 5 MPa could regulate HIF-2α independent of NF-κB, because the level of HIF-2α gene expression increased significantly without upregulation of NF-κB expression at 5 MPa. Hydrostatic pressure may influence cartilage degeneration, inducing MMP-13 and MMP-3 expression through HIF-2α. View Full-Text
Keywords: hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-2α; hydrostatic pressure; chondrocytes; hypertrophic differentiation; osteoarthritis; cartilage degeneration; inflammation hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-2α; hydrostatic pressure; chondrocytes; hypertrophic differentiation; osteoarthritis; cartilage degeneration; inflammation
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Inoue, H.; Arai, Y.; Kishida, T.; Terauchi, R.; Honjo, K.; Nakagawa, S.; Tsuchida, S.; Matsuki, T.; Ueshima, K.; Fujiwara, H.; Mazda, O.; Kubo, T. Hydrostatic Pressure Influences HIF-2 Alpha Expression in Chondrocytes. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16, 1043-1050.

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