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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(9), 16544-16576; doi:10.3390/ijms150916544

Prognostic DNA Methylation Markers for Prostate Cancer

Department of Molecular Medicine, Aarhus University Hospital, Brendstrupgaardsvej 100, 8200 Aarhus N, Denmark
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Received: 8 August 2014 / Revised: 5 September 2014 / Accepted: 11 September 2014 / Published: 18 September 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Research in Urology 2014)
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Abstract

Prostate cancer (PC) is the most commonly diagnosed neoplasm and the third most common cause of cancer-related death amongst men in the Western world. PC is a clinically highly heterogeneous disease, and distinction between aggressive and indolent disease is a major challenge for the management of PC. Currently, no biomarkers or prognostic tools are able to accurately predict tumor progression at the time of diagnosis. Thus, improved biomarkers for PC prognosis are urgently needed. This review focuses on the prognostic potential of DNA methylation biomarkers for PC. Epigenetic changes are hallmarks of PC and associated with malignant initiation as well as tumor progression. Moreover, DNA methylation is the most frequently studied epigenetic alteration in PC, and the prognostic potential of DNA methylation markers for PC has been demonstrated in multiple studies. The most promising methylation marker candidates identified so far include PITX2, C1orf114 (CCDC181) and the GABRE~miR-452~miR-224 locus, in addition to the three-gene signature AOX1/C1orf114/HAPLN3. Several other biomarker candidates have also been investigated, but with less stringent clinical validation and/or conflicting evidence regarding their possible prognostic value available at this time. Here, we review the current evidence for the prognostic potential of DNA methylation markers in PC. View Full-Text
Keywords: prostate cancer; DNA methylation; epigenetics; biomarker; prognosis prostate cancer; DNA methylation; epigenetics; biomarker; prognosis
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Strand, S.H.; Orntoft, T.F.; Sorensen, K.D. Prognostic DNA Methylation Markers for Prostate Cancer. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15, 16544-16576.

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