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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(9), 16270-16283; doi:10.3390/ijms150916270

Recovering Bioactive Compounds from Olive Oil Filter Cake by Advanced Extraction Techniques

1
Research and Development Functional Olive Oil Department, Aceites Maeva S.L., Avda. Incar, S/N 18130 Escúzar Granada, Granada 18007, Spain
2
Research and Development of Functional Food Centre, Health Science Technological Park, Avda. del Conocimiento, Ed. BioRegión, Armilla, Granada 18007, Spain
3
Laboratory of Foodomics, Institute of Food Science Research (CIAL-CSIC), Nicolás Cabrera 9, Campus Cantoblanco, Madrid 28049, Spain
4
Department of Analytical Chemistry, Physical Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Biology, Environmental Science and Chemistry, University of Alcalá. Ctra. Madrid-Barcelona, Km. 33.600, 28871, Alcalá de Henares, Madrid 28049, Spain
These authors contribute equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 31 July 2014 / Revised: 4 September 2014 / Accepted: 5 September 2014 / Published: 15 September 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Phenolics and Polyphenols)
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Abstract

The potential of by-products generated during extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO) filtration as a natural source of phenolic compounds (with demonstrated bioactivity) has been evaluated using pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) and considering mixtures of two GRAS (generally recognized as safe) solvents (ethanol and water) at temperatures ranging from 40 to 175 °C. The extracts were characterized by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to diode array detection (DAD) and electrospray time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-ESI-TOF/MS) to determine the phenolic-composition of the filter cake. The best isolation procedure to extract the phenolic fraction from the filter cake was accomplished using ethanol and water (50:50, v/v) at 120 °C. The main phenolic compounds identified in the samples were characterized as phenolic alcohols or derivatives (hydroxytyrosol and its oxidation product), secoiridoids (decarboxymethylated and hydroxylated forms of oleuropein and ligstroside aglycones), flavones (luteolin and apigenin) and elenolic acid derivatives. The PLE extraction process can be applied to produce enriched extracts with applications as bioactive food ingredients, as well as nutraceuticals. View Full-Text
Keywords: olive oil by-products; filter cake; phenolic compounds; pressurized liquid extraction; HPLC-ESI-TOF/MS; GRAS solvents olive oil by-products; filter cake; phenolic compounds; pressurized liquid extraction; HPLC-ESI-TOF/MS; GRAS solvents
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Lozano-Sánchez, J.; Castro-Puyana, M.; Mendiola, J.A.; Segura-Carretero, A.; Cifuentes, A.; Ibáez, E. Recovering Bioactive Compounds from Olive Oil Filter Cake by Advanced Extraction Techniques. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15, 16270-16283.

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