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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(9), 14921-14934; doi:10.3390/ijms150914921

The DNA Repair Enzyme Apurinic/Apyrimidinic Endonuclease (Apex Nuclease) 2 Has the Potential to Protect against Down-Regulation of Chondrocyte Activity in Osteoarthritis

1
Department of Sports Medicine, St. Marianna University School of Medicine, 2-16-1 Sugao, Miyamae-ku, Kawasaki, Kanagawa 216-8511, Japan
2
Department of Orthopedic Surgery, St. Marianna University School of Medicine, 2-16-1 Sugao, Miyamae-ku, Kawasaki, Kanagawa 216-8511, Japan
3
Department of Frontier Medicine, Institute of Medical Science, St. Marianna University School of Medicine, 2-16-1 Sugao, Miyamae-ku, Kawasaki, Kanagawa 216-8511, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 30 June 2014 / Revised: 4 August 2014 / Accepted: 14 August 2014 / Published: 25 August 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Chondrocyte Phenotype in Cartilage Biology)
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Abstract

Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 2 (Apex 2) plays a critical role in DNA repair caused by oxidative damage in a variety of human somatic cells. We speculated that chondrocyte Apex 2 may protect against the catabolic process of articular cartilage in osteoarthritis (OA). Higher levels of Apex 2 expression were histologically observed in severely compared with mildly degenerated OA cartilage from STR/OrtCrlj mice, an experimental model which spontaneously develops OA. The immunopositivity of Apex 2 was significantly correlated with the degree of cartilage degeneration. Moreover, the OA-related catabolic factor interleukin-1β induced the expression of Apex 2 in chondrocytes, while Apex 2 silencing using small interfering RNA reduced chondrocyte activity in vitro. The expression of Apex 2 in chondrocytes therefore appears to be associated with the degeneration of articular cartilage and could be induced by an OA-related catabolic factor to protect against the catabolic process of articular cartilage. Our findings suggest that Apex 2 may have the potential to prevent the catabolic stress-mediated down-regulation of chondrocyte activity in OA. View Full-Text
Keywords: osteoarthritis; DNA repair enzyme; oxidative stress; chondrocytes; Apex 2 (apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 2) osteoarthritis; DNA repair enzyme; oxidative stress; chondrocytes; Apex 2 (apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 2)
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Yui, N.; Yoshioka, H.; Fujiya, H.; Musha, H.; Beppu, M.; Karasawa, R.; Yudoh, K. The DNA Repair Enzyme Apurinic/Apyrimidinic Endonuclease (Apex Nuclease) 2 Has the Potential to Protect against Down-Regulation of Chondrocyte Activity in Osteoarthritis. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15, 14921-14934.

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