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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(8), 13578-13595; doi:10.3390/ijms150813578

Age Dependent Changes in Cartilage Matrix, Subchondral Bone Mass, and Estradiol Levels in Blood Serum, in Naturally Occurring Osteoarthritis in Guinea Pigs

1
Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang 050017, China
2
Medical Research Center, Hebei United University, Tangshan 063000, China
3
Department of Pathology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Hebei United University, Tangshan 063000, China
4
Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Affiliated Hospital of Hebei United University, Tangshan 063000, China
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 12 May 2014 / Revised: 17 June 2014 / Accepted: 27 June 2014 / Published: 5 August 2014
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular and Cellular Biology)
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Abstract

The Dunkin Hartley (DH) guinea pig is a widely used naturally occurring osteoarthritis model. The aim of this study was to provide detailed evidence of age-related changes in articular cartilage, subchondral bone mineral density, and estradiol levels. We studied the female Dunkin Hartley guinea pigs at 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months of age (eight animals in each group). Histological analysis were used to identify degenerative cartilage and electron microscopy was performed to further observe the ultrastructure. Estradiol expression levels in serum were assessed, and matrix metalloproteinase 3 and glycosaminoglycan expression in cartilage was performed by immunohistochemistry. Bone mineral density of the tibia subchondral bone was measured using dual X-ray absorptiometry. Histological analysis showed that the degeneration of articular cartilage grew more severe with increasing age starting at 3 months, coupled with the loss of normal cells and an increase in degenerated cells. Serum estradiol levels increased with age from 1 to 6 months and thereafter remained stable from 6 to 12 months. Matrix metalloproteinase 3 expression in cartilage increased with age, but no significant difference was found in glycosaminoglycan expression between 1- and 3-month old animals. The bone mineral density of the tibia subchondral bone increased with age before reaching a stable value at 9 months of age. Age-related articular cartilage degeneration occurred in Dunkin Hartley guinea pigs beginning at 3 months of age, while no directly positive or negative correlation between osteoarthritis progression and estradiol serum level or subchondral bone mineral density was discovered. View Full-Text
Keywords: osteoarthritis; cartilage; subchondral bone; estradiol; electron microscope osteoarthritis; cartilage; subchondral bone; estradiol; electron microscope
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Yan, J.-Y.; Tian, F.-M.; Wang, W.-Y.; Cheng, Y.; Xu, H.-F.; Song, H.-P.; Zhang, Y.-Z.; Zhang, L. Age Dependent Changes in Cartilage Matrix, Subchondral Bone Mass, and Estradiol Levels in Blood Serum, in Naturally Occurring Osteoarthritis in Guinea Pigs. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15, 13578-13595.

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