Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(7), 12631-12650; doi:10.3390/ijms150712631

Alzheimer’s Disease—A Panorama Glimpse

1,2email, 3email, 1,* email and 3,* email
Received: 21 May 2014; in revised form: 26 June 2014 / Accepted: 10 July 2014 / Published: 16 July 2014
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: The single-mutation of genes associated with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) increases the production of Aβ peptides. An elevated concentration of Aβ peptides is prone to aggregation into oligomers and further deposition as plaque. Aβ plaques and neurofibrillary tangles are two hallmarks of AD. In this review, we provide a broad overview of the diverses sources that could lead to AD, which include genetic origins, Aβ peptides and tau protein. We shall discuss on tau protein and tau accumulation, which result in neurofibrillary tangles. We detail the mechanisms of Aβ aggregation, fibril formation and its polymorphism. We then show the possible links between Aβ and tau pathology. Furthermore, we summarize the structural data of Aβ and its precursor protein obtained via Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) or X-ray crystallography. At the end, we go through the C-terminal and N-terminal truncated Aβ variants. We wish to draw reader’s attention to two predominant and toxic Aβ species, namely Aβ4-42 and pyroglutamate amyloid-beta peptides, which have been neglected for more than a decade and may be crucial in Aβ pathogenesis due to their dominant presence in the AD brain.
Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease; amyloid peptide; amyloid β oligomer; tau protein; Aβ variants; Aβ polymorphism; pyroglutamate-modified amyloid beta peptides
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MDPI and ACS Style

Zhao, L.N.; Lu, L.; Chew, L.Y.; Mu, Y. Alzheimer’s Disease—A Panorama Glimpse. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15, 12631-12650.

AMA Style

Zhao LN, Lu L, Chew LY, Mu Y. Alzheimer’s Disease—A Panorama Glimpse. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2014; 15(7):12631-12650.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Zhao, Li N.; Lu, Lanyuan; Chew, Lock Y.; Mu, Yuguang. 2014. "Alzheimer’s Disease—A Panorama Glimpse." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 15, no. 7: 12631-12650.

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