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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(6), 9718-9734; doi:10.3390/ijms15069718
Article

Clinical Impact of Tumor-Infiltrating Inflammatory Cells in Primary Small Cell Esophageal Carcinoma

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Received: 1 May 2014; in revised form: 16 May 2014 / Accepted: 22 May 2014 / Published: 30 May 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Molecular Oncology 2014)
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Abstract: Primary small cell esophageal carcinoma is a rare and aggressive type of gastrointestinal cancer with poor prognosis. In the present study, the impact of tumour infiltrating inflammatory cells on clinico-pathological characteristics and the patients’ prognosis were analysed. A total of 36 small cell esophageal carcinomas, 19 adjacent normal tissues and 16 esophageal squamous cell carcinoma samples were collected. Qualified pathologists examined eosinophils, neutrophils, lymphocytes and macrophages on histochemical slides. The infiltration of eosinophils and macrophages in small cell esophageal carcinoma was significantly increased as compared with tumor adjacent normal tissues, and was significantly less in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Macrophage count was significantly associated with (p = 0.015) lymph node—stage in small cell esophageal carcinoma. When we grouped patients into two groups by counts of infiltrated inflammatory cells, Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that high macrophage infiltration group (p = 0.004) and high eosinophil infiltration group (p = 0.027) had significantly enhanced survival. In addition, multivariate analysis unveiled that eosinophil count (p = 0.002) and chemotherapy (Yes vs. No, p = 0.001) were independent prognostic indicators. Taken together, infiltration of macrophages and eosinophils into the solid tumor appear to be important in the progression of small cell esophageal carcinoma and patients’ prognosis.
Keywords: primary small cell esophageal carcinoma; tumor associated macrophages; tumor associated eosinophils; prognosis; tumor infiltrating lymphocytes; esophageal squamous cell carcinoma primary small cell esophageal carcinoma; tumor associated macrophages; tumor associated eosinophils; prognosis; tumor infiltrating lymphocytes; esophageal squamous cell carcinoma
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Zhang, Y.; Ren, H.; Wang, L.; Ning, Z.; Zhuang, Y.; Gan, J.; Chen, S.; Zhou, D.; Zhu, H.; Tan, D.; Zhang, H. Clinical Impact of Tumor-Infiltrating Inflammatory Cells in Primary Small Cell Esophageal Carcinoma. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15, 9718-9734.

AMA Style

Zhang Y, Ren H, Wang L, Ning Z, Zhuang Y, Gan J, Chen S, Zhou D, Zhu H, Tan D, Zhang H. Clinical Impact of Tumor-Infiltrating Inflammatory Cells in Primary Small Cell Esophageal Carcinoma. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2014; 15(6):9718-9734.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Zhang, Yuling; Ren, Hongzheng; Wang, Lu; Ning, Zhifeng; Zhuang, Yixuan; Gan, Jinfeng; Chen, Shaobin; Zhou, David; Zhu, Hua; Tan, Dongfeng; Zhang, Hao. 2014. "Clinical Impact of Tumor-Infiltrating Inflammatory Cells in Primary Small Cell Esophageal Carcinoma." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 15, no. 6: 9718-9734.



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