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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(6), 9718-9734; doi:10.3390/ijms15069718
Article

Clinical Impact of Tumor-Infiltrating Inflammatory Cells in Primary Small Cell Esophageal Carcinoma

1,8,†
, 2,†
, 3,8,†
, 3,8
, 9
, 3,8
, 4
, 5
, 6
, 7
 and 3,8,9,*
1 Department of Information, Affiliated Cancer Hospital of Shantou University Medical College, Shantou 515031, China 2 Department of Pathology, the Central Hospital of Kaifeng, Kaifeng 475000, China 3 Department of Biotherapy and Gastrointestinal Medical Oncology, Affiliated Cancer Hospital of Shantou University Medical College, Shantou 515031, China 4 Department of Thoracic Surgery, Affiliated Cancer Hospital of Shantou University Medical College, Shantou 515031, China 5 Department of Pathology, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY 14642, USA 6 Department of Surgery, Davis Heart and Lung Research Institute, Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, Columbus, OH 43210, USA 7 Department of Pathology, the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030, USA 8 Cancer Research Center, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou 515031, China 9 Tumor Tissue Bank, Affiliated Cancer Hospital of Shantou University Medical College, Shantou 515031, China These authors contributed equally to this work.
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 1 May 2014 / Revised: 16 May 2014 / Accepted: 22 May 2014 / Published: 30 May 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Molecular Oncology 2014)
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Abstract

Primary small cell esophageal carcinoma is a rare and aggressive type of gastrointestinal cancer with poor prognosis. In the present study, the impact of tumour infiltrating inflammatory cells on clinico-pathological characteristics and the patients’ prognosis were analysed. A total of 36 small cell esophageal carcinomas, 19 adjacent normal tissues and 16 esophageal squamous cell carcinoma samples were collected. Qualified pathologists examined eosinophils, neutrophils, lymphocytes and macrophages on histochemical slides. The infiltration of eosinophils and macrophages in small cell esophageal carcinoma was significantly increased as compared with tumor adjacent normal tissues, and was significantly less in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Macrophage count was significantly associated with (p = 0.015) lymph node—stage in small cell esophageal carcinoma. When we grouped patients into two groups by counts of infiltrated inflammatory cells, Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that high macrophage infiltration group (p = 0.004) and high eosinophil infiltration group (p = 0.027) had significantly enhanced survival. In addition, multivariate analysis unveiled that eosinophil count (p = 0.002) and chemotherapy (Yes vs. No, p = 0.001) were independent prognostic indicators. Taken together, infiltration of macrophages and eosinophils into the solid tumor appear to be important in the progression of small cell esophageal carcinoma and patients’ prognosis.
Keywords: primary small cell esophageal carcinoma; tumor associated macrophages; tumor associated eosinophils; prognosis; tumor infiltrating lymphocytes; esophageal squamous cell carcinoma primary small cell esophageal carcinoma; tumor associated macrophages; tumor associated eosinophils; prognosis; tumor infiltrating lymphocytes; esophageal squamous cell carcinoma
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Zhang, Y.; Ren, H.; Wang, L.; Ning, Z.; Zhuang, Y.; Gan, J.; Chen, S.; Zhou, D.; Zhu, H.; Tan, D.; Zhang, H. Clinical Impact of Tumor-Infiltrating Inflammatory Cells in Primary Small Cell Esophageal Carcinoma. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15, 9718-9734.

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