Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(6), 9422-9458; doi:10.3390/ijms15069422
Review

Novel Aspects of the Liver Microenvironment in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Pathogenesis and Development

1,3email, 1,3email, 1,3email, 1,2,3email, 4email, 1,3email, 1,2,3email, 3,5email and 1,2,3,* email
Received: 7 March 2014; in revised form: 13 May 2014 / Accepted: 14 May 2014 / Published: 27 May 2014
(This article belongs to the collection Molecular Mechanisms of Human Liver Diseases)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a prevalent primary liver cancer that is derived from hepatocytes and is characterised by high mortality rate and poor prognosis. While HCC is driven by cumulative changes in the hepatocyte genome, it is increasingly recognised that the liver microenvironment plays a pivotal role in HCC propensity, progression and treatment response. The microenvironmental stimuli that have been recognised as being involved in HCC pathogenesis are diverse and include intrahepatic cell subpopulations, such as immune and stellate cells, pathogens, such as hepatitis viruses, and non-cellular factors, such as abnormal extracellular matrix (ECM) and tissue hypoxia. Recently, a number of novel environmental influences have been shown to have an equally dramatic, but previously unrecognized, role in HCC progression. Novel aspects, including diet, gastrointestinal tract (GIT) microflora and circulating microvesicles, are now being recognized as increasingly important in HCC pathogenesis. This review will outline aspects of the HCC microenvironment, including the potential role of GIT microflora and microvesicles, in providing new insights into tumourigenesis and identifying potential novel targets in the treatment of HCC.
Keywords: cancer; liver; microenvironment; hepatocellular carcinoma
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MDPI and ACS Style

Tu, T.; Budzinska, M.A.; Maczurek, A.E.; Cheng, R.; Di Bartolomeo, A.; Warner, F.J.; McCaughan, G.W.; McLennan, S.V.; Shackel, N.A. Novel Aspects of the Liver Microenvironment in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Pathogenesis and Development. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15, 9422-9458.

AMA Style

Tu T, Budzinska MA, Maczurek AE, Cheng R, Di Bartolomeo A, Warner FJ, McCaughan GW, McLennan SV, Shackel NA. Novel Aspects of the Liver Microenvironment in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Pathogenesis and Development. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2014; 15(6):9422-9458.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Tu, Thomas; Budzinska, Magdalena A.; Maczurek, Annette E.; Cheng, Robert; Di Bartolomeo, Anna; Warner, Fiona J.; McCaughan, Geoffrey W.; McLennan, Susan V.; Shackel, Nicholas A. 2014. "Novel Aspects of the Liver Microenvironment in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Pathogenesis and Development." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 15, no. 6: 9422-9458.

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