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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(5), 8509-8525; doi:10.3390/ijms15058509
Article

Lyophilized Platelet-Rich Fibrin (PRF) Promotes Craniofacial Bone Regeneration through Runx2

1,†
, 2,†
, 3
, 2
, 2
, 4
, 2
, 1
, 5
, 6
, 1
, 2,5
 and 1,2,5,6,*
1 Department of Implantology, Stomatological Hospital, Jilin University, Changchun 130021, Jilin, China 2 UIC Brodie Laboratory for Craniofacial Genetics, Chicago, IL 60612, USA 3 Department of Periodontology, Stomatological Hospital, Jilin University, Changchun 130021, Jilin, China 4 College of Dentistry, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089, USA 5 Department of Orthodontics, College of Dentistry, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60612, USA 6 Department of Periodontics, College of Dentistry, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60612, USA These authors contributed equally to this work.
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 5 March 2014 / Revised: 1 April 2014 / Accepted: 15 April 2014 / Published: 14 May 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Signal Transduction of Tissue Repair)
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Abstract

Freeze-drying is an effective means to control scaffold pore size and preserve its composition. The purpose of the present study was to determine the applicability of lyophilized Platelet-rich fibrin (LPRF) as a scaffold for craniofacial tissue regeneration and to compare its biological effects with commonly used fresh Platelet-rich fibrin (PRF). LPRF caused a 4.8-fold ± 0.4-fold elevation in Runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2) expression in alveolar bone cells, compared to a 3.6-fold ± 0.2-fold increase when using fresh PRF, and a more than 10-fold rise of alkaline phosphatase levels and mineralization markers. LPRF-induced Runx2 expression only occurred in alveolar bone and not in periodontal or dental follicle cells. LPRF also caused a 1.6-fold increase in osteoblast proliferation (p < 0.001) when compared to fresh PRF. When applied in a rat craniofacial defect model for six weeks, LPRF resulted in 97% bony coverage of the defect, compared to 84% for fresh PRF, 64% for fibrin, and 16% without scaffold. Moreover, LPRF thickened the trabecular diameter by 25% when compared to fresh PRF and fibrin, and only LPRF and fresh PRF resulted in the formation of interconnected trabeculae across the defect. Together, these studies support the application of lyophilized PRF as a biomimetic scaffold for craniofacial bone regeneration and mineralized tissue engineering.
Keywords: Platelet-rich fibrin; lyophilization; calvaria; alveolar bone; Runx2 Platelet-rich fibrin; lyophilization; calvaria; alveolar bone; Runx2
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Li, Q.; Reed, D.A.; Min, L.; Gopinathan, G.; Li, S.; Dangaria, S.J.; Li, L.; Geng, Y.; Galang, M.-T.; Gajendrareddy, P.; Zhou, Y.; Luan, X.; Diekwisch, T.G.H. Lyophilized Platelet-Rich Fibrin (PRF) Promotes Craniofacial Bone Regeneration through Runx2. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15, 8509-8525.

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