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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(3), 4714-4732; doi:10.3390/ijms15034714

Current Progress in Bioactive Ceramic Scaffolds for Bone Repair and Regeneration

1,3,*  and 4,*
1 State Key Laboratory of High Performance Complex Manufacturing, Central South University, Changsha 410083, China 2 Department of Spine Surgery, the Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, Changsha 410011, China 3 Department of Regenerative Medicine & Cell Biology, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC 29425, USA 4 Cancer Research Institute, Central South University, Changsha 410078, China These authors contributed equally to this work.
* Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 20 January 2014 / Revised: 19 February 2014 / Accepted: 10 March 2014 / Published: 18 March 2014
(This article belongs to the Section Material Sciences and Nanotechnology)
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Bioactive ceramics have received great attention in the past decades owing to their success in stimulating cell proliferation, differentiation and bone tissue regeneration. They can react and form chemical bonds with cells and tissues in human body. This paper provides a comprehensive review of the application of bioactive ceramics for bone repair and regeneration. The review systematically summarizes the types and characters of bioactive ceramics, the fabrication methods for nanostructure and hierarchically porous structure, typical toughness methods for ceramic scaffold and corresponding mechanisms such as fiber toughness, whisker toughness and particle toughness. Moreover, greater insights into the mechanisms of interaction between ceramics and cells are provided, as well as the development of ceramic-based composite materials. The development and challenges of bioactive ceramics are also discussed from the perspective of bone repair and regeneration.
Keywords: bioactive ceramic; nanostructure; pore architecture; preparation technique; bone repair bioactive ceramic; nanostructure; pore architecture; preparation technique; bone repair
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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Gao, C.; Deng, Y.; Feng, P.; Mao, Z.; Li, P.; Yang, B.; Deng, J.; Cao, Y.; Shuai, C.; Peng, S. Current Progress in Bioactive Ceramic Scaffolds for Bone Repair and Regeneration. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15, 4714-4732.

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