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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(3), 3356-3372; doi:10.3390/ijms15033356
Article

Galectin-9 Induced Myeloid Suppressor Cells Expand Regulatory T Cells in an IL-10-Dependent Manner in CVB3-Induced Acute Myocarditis

1,†
,
2,†
,
3
 and
3,*
1 Laboratory of Medicine of The First Affiliated Hospital, Wannan Medical College, 2 Western Zheshan Road, Wuhu 241001, China 2 Department of Pharmacy, Institute of Dermatology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Nanjing 210001, China 3 Central Laboratory of The First Affiliated Hospital, Wannan Medical College, 2 Western Zheshan Road, Wuhu 241001, China These authors contributed equally to this work.
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 9 December 2013 / Revised: 6 January 2014 / Accepted: 11 February 2014 / Published: 25 February 2014
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics)
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Abstract

The objective of the study was to explore the effects of galectin-9 on myeloid suppressor cells in Coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3)-induced myocarditis and the possible mechanisms involved. For this purpose, BALB/c male mice were infected with CVB3 on day 0 and then received intraperitoneal (IP) administration of recombinant galectin-9 or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) daily from day 3 to day 7. The phenotypes and functions of myeloid suppressor cells were evaluated. The role and mechanism of myeloid suppressor cells and subsets in CVB3-induced myocarditis in vitro were explored. We found that galectin-9 remarkably increased the frequencies of CD11b+Gr-1+ cells in the cardiac tissue and spleen with myocarditis. Ly-6G+ cells were decreased and Ly-6C+ cells were increased in galectin-9-treated mice. In addition, CD11b+Gr-1+ cells were highly effective in suppressing CD4+ T cells. Moreover, our data demonstrate that CD11b+Gr-1+ cells are capable of expanding regulatory T cells (Tregs) from a preexisting population of natural Tregs, which depends on IL-10 but not TGF-β. Our results indicate that galectin-9 therapy may represent a useful approach to ameliorate CVB3-induced myocarditis.
Keywords: coxsackievirus; myocarditis; myeloid suppressor cells; regulatory T cells coxsackievirus; myocarditis; myeloid suppressor cells; regulatory T cells
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).
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Zhang, Y.; Jiang, L.; Zhang, M.; Lv, K. Galectin-9 Induced Myeloid Suppressor Cells Expand Regulatory T Cells in an IL-10-Dependent Manner in CVB3-Induced Acute Myocarditis. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15, 3356-3372.

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