Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(3), 3356-3372; doi:10.3390/ijms15033356
Article

Galectin-9 Induced Myeloid Suppressor Cells Expand Regulatory T Cells in an IL-10-Dependent Manner in CVB3-Induced Acute Myocarditis

1,†email, 2,†email, 3email and 3,* email
Received: 9 December 2013; in revised form: 6 January 2014 / Accepted: 11 February 2014 / Published: 25 February 2014
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Pathology)
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Abstract: The objective of the study was to explore the effects of galectin-9 on myeloid suppressor cells in Coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3)-induced myocarditis and the possible mechanisms involved. For this purpose, BALB/c male mice were infected with CVB3 on day 0 and then received intraperitoneal (IP) administration of recombinant galectin-9 or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) daily from day 3 to day 7. The phenotypes and functions of myeloid suppressor cells were evaluated. The role and mechanism of myeloid suppressor cells and subsets in CVB3-induced myocarditis in vitro were explored. We found that galectin-9 remarkably increased the frequencies of CD11b+Gr-1+ cells in the cardiac tissue and spleen with myocarditis. Ly-6G+ cells were decreased and Ly-6C+ cells were increased in galectin-9-treated mice. In addition, CD11b+Gr-1+ cells were highly effective in suppressing CD4+ T cells. Moreover, our data demonstrate that CD11b+Gr-1+ cells are capable of expanding regulatory T cells (Tregs) from a preexisting population of natural Tregs, which depends on IL-10 but not TGF-β. Our results indicate that galectin-9 therapy may represent a useful approach to ameliorate CVB3-induced myocarditis.
Keywords: coxsackievirus; myocarditis; myeloid suppressor cells; regulatory T cells
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Zhang, Y.; Jiang, L.; Zhang, M.; Lv, K. Galectin-9 Induced Myeloid Suppressor Cells Expand Regulatory T Cells in an IL-10-Dependent Manner in CVB3-Induced Acute Myocarditis. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15, 3356-3372.

AMA Style

Zhang Y, Jiang L, Zhang M, Lv K. Galectin-9 Induced Myeloid Suppressor Cells Expand Regulatory T Cells in an IL-10-Dependent Manner in CVB3-Induced Acute Myocarditis. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2014; 15(3):3356-3372.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Zhang, Yingying; Jiang, Li; Zhang, Mengying; Lv, Kun. 2014. "Galectin-9 Induced Myeloid Suppressor Cells Expand Regulatory T Cells in an IL-10-Dependent Manner in CVB3-Induced Acute Myocarditis." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 15, no. 3: 3356-3372.


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