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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(12), 22772-22785; doi:10.3390/ijms151222772

Regulated Necrosis in HeLa Cells Induced by ZnPc Photodynamic Treatment: A New Nuclear Morphology

Department of Biology, University Autonomous of Madrid, 28049 Madrid, Spain
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Received: 7 October 2014 / Revised: 3 November 2014 / Accepted: 1 December 2014 / Published: 9 December 2014
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular and Cellular Biology)
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Abstract

Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a cancer treatment modality based on the administration of a photosensitizer (PS), which accumulates preferentially in tumor cells. Subsequent irradiation of the neoplastic area triggers a cascade of photochemical reactions that leads to the formation of highly reactive oxygen species responsible for cell inactivation. Photodynamic treatments in vitro are performed with the PS, zinc-phthalocyanine (ZnPc). The PS is near the plasma membrane during uptake and internalization. Inactivation clearly occurs by a necrotic process, manifested by nuclear pyknosis, negative TUNEL and Annexin V assays and non-relocation of cytochrome c. In contrast, by increasing the incubation time, ZnPc is accumulated in the Golgi apparatus and produces cell inactivation with characteristics of apoptosis and necrosis: TUNEL positive, relocated cytochrome c and negative Annexin V assay. This type of death produces a still undescribed granulated nuclear morphology, which is different from that of necrosis or apoptosis. This morphology is inhibited by necrostatin-1, a specific inhibitor of regulated necrosis. View Full-Text
Keywords: photodynamic therapy; photosensitizer; apoptosis; necrosis; regulated necrosis photodynamic therapy; photosensitizer; apoptosis; necrosis; regulated necrosis
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Soriano, J.; Villanueva, A.; Stockert, J.C.; Cañete, M. Regulated Necrosis in HeLa Cells Induced by ZnPc Photodynamic Treatment: A New Nuclear Morphology. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15, 22772-22785.

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