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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(11), 21270-21285; doi:10.3390/ijms151121270

Acquiring Chondrocyte Phenotype from Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells under Inflammatory Conditions

1
The First Department of Internal Medicine, University of Occupational and Environmental Health, 1-1 Iseigaoka, Yahatanishi-ku, Kitakyushu, Fukuoka 807-8555, Japan
2
Pharmacology Research Laboratories I, Research Division, Mitsubishi Tanabe Pharma Corporation, 1000 Kamoshida-cho, Aoba-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 227-0033, Japan
3
Division of Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, Keio University, 35 Shinanomachi, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160-8582, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 15 July 2014 / Revised: 30 October 2014 / Accepted: 3 November 2014 / Published: 17 November 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Chondrocyte Phenotype in Cartilage Biology)
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Abstract

An inflammatory milieu breaks down the cartilage matrix and induces chondrocyte apoptosis, resulting in cartilage destruction in patients with cartilage degenerative diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis or osteoarthritis. Because of the limited regenerative ability of chondrocytes, defects in cartilage are irreversible and difficult to repair. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are expected to be a new tool for cartilage repair because they are present in the cartilage and are able to differentiate into multiple lineages of cells, including chondrocytes. Although clinical trials using MSCs for patients with cartilage defects have already begun, its efficacy and repair mechanisms remain unknown. A PubMed search conducted in October 2014 using the following medical subject headings (MeSH) terms: mesenchymal stromal cells, chondrogenesis, and cytokines resulted in 204 articles. The titles and abstracts were screened and nine articles relevant to “inflammatory” cytokines and “human” MSCs were identified. Herein, we review the cell biology and mechanisms of chondrocyte phenotype acquisition from human MSCs in an inflammatory milieu and discuss the clinical potential of MSCs for cartilage repair. View Full-Text
Keywords: cartilage; chondrogenesis; mesenchymal stem cells; inflammation cartilage; chondrogenesis; mesenchymal stem cells; inflammation
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Kondo, M.; Yamaoka, K.; Tanaka, Y. Acquiring Chondrocyte Phenotype from Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells under Inflammatory Conditions. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15, 21270-21285.

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