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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(11), 21090-21104; doi:10.3390/ijms151121090

Effects of Melatonin on the Proliferation and Apoptosis of Sheep Granulosa Cells under Thermal Stress

1
Key Laboratory of Animal Genetics and Breeding of the Ministry of Agriculture, National Engineering Laboratory for Animal Breeding, Beijing Key Laboratory for Animal Genetic Improvement, National Key Laboratory of Animal Nutrition, College of Animal Science and Technology, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, China
2
College of Animal Science, Jilin University, Changchun 130062, China
3
College of Animal Science, Xinjiang Agricultural University, Wulumuqi 830052, China
4
Department of Cellular & Structural Biology, The UT Health Science Center, San Antonio, TX 78229, USA
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 30 July 2014 / Revised: 3 November 2014 / Accepted: 3 November 2014 / Published: 14 November 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in the Research of Melatonin 2014)
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Abstract

The cross-talk between oocyte and somatic cells plays a crucial role in the regulation of follicular development and oocyte maturation. As a result, granulosa cell apoptosis causes follicular atresia. In this study, sheep granulosa cells were cultured under thermal stress to induce apoptosis, and melatonin (MT) was examined to evaluate its potential effects on heat-induced granulosa cell injury. The results demonstrated that the Colony Forming Efficiency (CFE) of granulosa cells was significantly decreased (heat 19.70% ± 1.29% vs. control 26.96% ± 1.81%, p < 0.05) and the apoptosis rate was significantly increased (heat 56.16% ± 13.95% vs. control 22.80% ± 12.16%, p < 0.05) in granulosa cells with thermal stress compared with the control group. Melatonin (10−7 M) remarkably reduced the negative effects caused by thermal stress in the granulosa cells. This reduction was indicated by the improved CFE and decreased apoptotic rate of these cells. The beneficial effects of melatonin on thermal stressed granulosa cells were not inhibited by its membrane receptor antagonist luzindole. A mechanistic exploration indicated that melatonin (10−7 M) down-regulated p53 and up-regulated Bcl-2 and LHR gene expression of granulosa cells under thermal stress. This study provides evidence for the molecular mechanisms of the protective effects of melatonin on granulosa cells during thermal stress. View Full-Text
Keywords: melatonin; sheep; granulosa cell; proliferation; apoptosis; thermal stress; antioxidant melatonin; sheep; granulosa cell; proliferation; apoptosis; thermal stress; antioxidant
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Fu, Y.; He, C.-J.; Ji, P.-Y.; Zhuo, Z.-Y.; Tian, X.-Z.; Wang, F.; Tan, D.-X.; Liu, G.-S. Effects of Melatonin on the Proliferation and Apoptosis of Sheep Granulosa Cells under Thermal Stress. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15, 21090-21104.

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