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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(10), 17827-17837; doi:10.3390/ijms151017827

Insulin Induces an Increase in Cytosolic Glucose Levels in 3T3-L1 Cells with Inhibited Glycogen Synthase Activation

1
Celica, Biomedical, Tehnološki park 24, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
2
Laboratory for Neuroendocrinology–Molecular Cell Physiology, Institute of Pathophysiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ljubljana, Zaloška 4, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
3
Department of Biology, Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Večna pot 111, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
4
Department of Physical Performance, Norwegian School of Sports Sciences, P.O. Box N-4014 Ullevål Stadion, 0806 Oslo, Norway
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 22 July 2014 / Revised: 18 September 2014 / Accepted: 19 September 2014 / Published: 2 October 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) 2015)
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Abstract

Glucose is an important source of energy for mammalian cells and enters the cytosol via glucose transporters. It has been thought for a long time that glucose entering the cytosol is swiftly phosphorylated in most cell types; hence the levels of free glucose are very low, beyond the detection level. However, the introduction of new fluorescence resonance energy transfer-based glucose nanosensors has made it possible to measure intracellular glucose more accurately. Here, we used the fluorescent indicator protein (FLIPglu-600µ) to monitor cytosolic glucose dynamics in mouse 3T3-L1 cells in which glucose utilization for glycogen synthesis was inhibited. The results show that cells exhibit a low resting cytosolic glucose concentration. However, in cells with inhibited glycogen synthase activation, insulin induced a robust increase in cytosolic free glucose. The insulin-induced increase in cytosolic glucose in these cells is due to an imbalance between the glucose transported into the cytosol and the use of glucose in the cytosol. In untreated cells with sensitive glycogen synthase activation, insulin stimulation did not result in a change in the cytosolic glucose level. This is the first report of dynamic measurements of cytosolic glucose levels in cells devoid of the glycogen synthesis pathway. View Full-Text
Keywords: glucose; FRET; nanosensor; 3T3-L1 fibroblast; insulin; glycogen glucose; FRET; nanosensor; 3T3-L1 fibroblast; insulin; glycogen
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Chowdhury, H.H.; Kreft, M.; Jensen, J.; Zorec, R. Insulin Induces an Increase in Cytosolic Glucose Levels in 3T3-L1 Cells with Inhibited Glycogen Synthase Activation. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15, 17827-17837.

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