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Development and Experimental Testing of an Optical Micro-Spectroscopic Technique Incorporating True Line-Scan Excitation
Physics Department, University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI 53211, USA
Aurora Spectral Technologies, Milwaukee, WI 53211, USA
Department of Biological Sciences, University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI 53201, USA
UWM-Small Businesses Collaboratory, University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI 53211, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 18 September 2013; in revised form: 15 December 2013 / Accepted: 23 December 2013 / Published: 27 December 2013
Abstract: Multiphoton micro-spectroscopy, employing diffraction optics and electron-multiplying CCD (EMCCD) cameras, is a suitable method for determining protein complex stoichiometry, quaternary structure, and spatial distribution in living cells using Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) imaging. The method provides highly resolved spectra of molecules or molecular complexes at each image pixel, and it does so on a timescale shorter than that of molecular diffusion, which scrambles the spectral information. Acquisition of an entire spectrally resolved image, however, is slower than that of broad-bandwidth microscopes because it takes longer times to collect the same number of photons at each emission wavelength as in a broad bandwidth. Here, we demonstrate an optical micro-spectroscopic scheme that employs a laser beam shaped into a line to excite in parallel multiple sample voxels. The method presents dramatically increased sensitivity and/or acquisition speed and, at the same time, has excellent spatial and spectral resolution, similar to point-scan configurations. When applied to FRET imaging using an oligomeric FRET construct expressed in living cells and consisting of a FRET acceptor linked to three donors, the technique based on line-shaped excitation provides higher accuracy compared to the point-scan approach, and it reduces artifacts caused by photobleaching and other undesired photophysical effects.
Keywords: optical micro-spectroscopy; fluorescence; two-photon excitation; multi-photon excitation; energy transfer
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Biener, G.; Stoneman, M.R.; Acbas, G.; Holz, J.D.; Orlova, M.; Komarova, L.; Kuchin, S.; Raicu, V. Development and Experimental Testing of an Optical Micro-Spectroscopic Technique Incorporating True Line-Scan Excitation. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15, 261-276.
Biener G, Stoneman MR, Acbas G, Holz JD, Orlova M, Komarova L, Kuchin S, Raicu V. Development and Experimental Testing of an Optical Micro-Spectroscopic Technique Incorporating True Line-Scan Excitation. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2014; 15(1):261-276.
Biener, Gabriel; Stoneman, Michael R.; Acbas, Gheorghe; Holz, Jessica D.; Orlova, Marianna; Komarova, Liudmila; Kuchin, Sergei; Raicu, Valerică. 2014. "Development and Experimental Testing of an Optical Micro-Spectroscopic Technique Incorporating True Line-Scan Excitation." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 15, no. 1: 261-276.