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Posttranscriptional Regulation of Insulin Family Ligands and Receptors
Laboratory of Genetics, National Institute on Aging-Intramural Research Program, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 3 July 2013; in revised form: 17 August 2013 / Accepted: 6 September 2013 / Published: 18 September 2013
Abstract: Insulin system including ligands (insulin and IGFs) and their shared receptors (IR and IGFR) are critical regulators of insulin signaling and glucose homeostasis. Altered insulin system is associated with major pathological conditions like diabetes and cancer. The mRNAs encoding for these ligands and their receptors are posttranscriptionally controlled by three major groups of regulators; (i) alternative splicing regulatory factors; (ii) turnover and translation regulator RNA-binding proteins (TTR-RBPs); and (iii) non-coding RNAs including miRNAs and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs). In this review, we discuss the influence of these regulators on alternative splicing, mRNA stability and translation. Due to the pathological impacts of insulin system, we also discussed the possibilities of discovering new potential regulators which will improve understanding of insulin system and associated diseases.
Keywords: glucose homeostasis; insulin-like growth factor; insulin-like growth factor receptor; RNA-binding protein; micro RNA; long noncoding RNA; mRNA decay; mRNA translation; insulin signaling; alternative splicing IRES
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Panda, A.C.; Grammatikakis, I.; Yoon, J.-H.; Abdelmohsen, K. Posttranscriptional Regulation of Insulin Family Ligands and Receptors. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14, 19202-19229.
Panda AC, Grammatikakis I, Yoon J-H, Abdelmohsen K. Posttranscriptional Regulation of Insulin Family Ligands and Receptors. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2013; 14(9):19202-19229.
Panda, Amaresh C.; Grammatikakis, Ioannis; Yoon, Je-Hyun; Abdelmohsen, Kotb. 2013. "Posttranscriptional Regulation of Insulin Family Ligands and Receptors." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 14, no. 9: 19202-19229.