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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(7), 14008-14023; doi:10.3390/ijms140714008

Toll-Like Receptors in Atherosclerosis

Kennedy Institute of Rheumatology, NDORMS, University of Oxford, Roosevelt Drive, Headington, Oxford OX3 7FY, UK
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Received: 16 May 2013 / Revised: 18 June 2013 / Accepted: 22 June 2013 / Published: 4 July 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Signalling Molecules and Signal Transduction in Cells)
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Abstract

Atherosclerosis, the leading cause of cardiovascular disease (CVD), is driven by inflammation. Increasing evidence suggests that toll-like receptors (TLRs) are key orchestrators of the atherosclerotic disease process. Interestingly, a distinct picture is being revealed for individual receptors in atherosclerosis. TLRs exhibit a complex nature enabling the detection of multiple motifs named danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) and pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). Activation of these receptors triggers an intracellular signalling cascade mediated through MyD88 or TRIF, leading to the production of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. In this review we explore key novel findings pertaining to TLR signalling in atherosclerosis, including recently described endosomal TLRs and future directions in TLR research. View Full-Text
Keywords: pattern recognition; inflammation; toll-like receptors; innate immunity; atherosclerosis; cardiovascular disease; macrophages; dendritic cells pattern recognition; inflammation; toll-like receptors; innate immunity; atherosclerosis; cardiovascular disease; macrophages; dendritic cells
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Falck-Hansen, M.; Kassiteridi, C.; Monaco, C. Toll-Like Receptors in Atherosclerosis. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14, 14008-14023.

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