Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(7), 14008-14023; doi:10.3390/ijms140714008

Toll-Like Receptors in Atherosclerosis

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Received: 16 May 2013; in revised form: 18 June 2013 / Accepted: 22 June 2013 / Published: 4 July 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Signalling Molecules and Signal Transduction in Cells)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: Atherosclerosis, the leading cause of cardiovascular disease (CVD), is driven by inflammation. Increasing evidence suggests that toll-like receptors (TLRs) are key orchestrators of the atherosclerotic disease process. Interestingly, a distinct picture is being revealed for individual receptors in atherosclerosis. TLRs exhibit a complex nature enabling the detection of multiple motifs named danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) and pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). Activation of these receptors triggers an intracellular signalling cascade mediated through MyD88 or TRIF, leading to the production of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. In this review we explore key novel findings pertaining to TLR signalling in atherosclerosis, including recently described endosomal TLRs and future directions in TLR research.
Keywords: pattern recognition; inflammation; toll-like receptors; innate immunity; atherosclerosis; cardiovascular disease; macrophages; dendritic cells
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MDPI and ACS Style

Falck-Hansen, M.; Kassiteridi, C.; Monaco, C. Toll-Like Receptors in Atherosclerosis. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14, 14008-14023.

AMA Style

Falck-Hansen M, Kassiteridi C, Monaco C. Toll-Like Receptors in Atherosclerosis. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2013; 14(7):14008-14023.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Falck-Hansen, Mika; Kassiteridi, Christina; Monaco, Claudia. 2013. "Toll-Like Receptors in Atherosclerosis." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 14, no. 7: 14008-14023.

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