Open AccessThis article is
- freely available
Toll-Like Receptors in Atherosclerosis
Kennedy Institute of Rheumatology, NDORMS, University of Oxford, Roosevelt Drive, Headington, Oxford OX3 7FY, UK
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 16 May 2013; in revised form: 18 June 2013 / Accepted: 22 June 2013 / Published: 4 July 2013
Abstract: Atherosclerosis, the leading cause of cardiovascular disease (CVD), is driven by inflammation. Increasing evidence suggests that toll-like receptors (TLRs) are key orchestrators of the atherosclerotic disease process. Interestingly, a distinct picture is being revealed for individual receptors in atherosclerosis. TLRs exhibit a complex nature enabling the detection of multiple motifs named danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) and pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). Activation of these receptors triggers an intracellular signalling cascade mediated through MyD88 or TRIF, leading to the production of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. In this review we explore key novel findings pertaining to TLR signalling in atherosclerosis, including recently described endosomal TLRs and future directions in TLR research.
Keywords: pattern recognition; inflammation; toll-like receptors; innate immunity; atherosclerosis; cardiovascular disease; macrophages; dendritic cells
Citations to this Article
Cite This Article
MDPI and ACS Style
Falck-Hansen, M.; Kassiteridi, C.; Monaco, C. Toll-Like Receptors in Atherosclerosis. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14, 14008-14023.
Falck-Hansen M, Kassiteridi C, Monaco C. Toll-Like Receptors in Atherosclerosis. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2013; 14(7):14008-14023.
Falck-Hansen, Mika; Kassiteridi, Christina; Monaco, Claudia. 2013. "Toll-Like Receptors in Atherosclerosis." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 14, no. 7: 14008-14023.